UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549



 

FORM 10-K



 

 
x   ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015

 
o   TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from             to            

Commission File No. 814-00735



 

KCAP Financial, Inc.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)



 

 
Delaware   20-5951150
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
  (I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)

295 Madison Avenue, 6th Floor
New York, New York 10017

(Address of principal executive offices)

(212) 455-8300

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)



 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 
Title of each class   Name of exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share
7.375% Notes Due 2019
  The NASDAQ Global Select Market
New York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None



 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.Yes o No x

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.Yes o No x

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days: Yes x No o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes o No o

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer. See definition of “accelerated filer” and “large accelerated filer” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

     
Large accelerated filer o   Accelerated filer x   Non-accelerated filer o   Smaller Reporting Company o
          (Do not check if a smaller
reporting company)
    

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).Yes o No x

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2015 was approximately $221,456,294 based upon a closing price of $5.98 reported for such date by The NASDAQ Global Select Market. Common shares held by each executive officer and director and by each person who owns 5% or more of the outstanding common shares have been excluded in that such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes.

The number of outstanding shares of common stock of the registrant as of March 8, 2016 was 37,130,433.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement for the 2016 annual meeting of stockholders to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days following the end of the registrant’s fiscal year-end are incorporated by reference into Part III of this report.

 

 


 
 

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NOTE ABOUT REFERENCES TO KCAP FINANCIAL, INC.

In this Annual Report on Form 10-K (this “Annual Report”), the “Company”, “KCAP”, “we”, “us” and “our” refer to KCAP Financial, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries, KCAP Senior Funding I, LLC and KCAP Senior Funding I Holdings, LLC, unless the context otherwise requires.

NOTE ABOUT TRADEMARKS

KCAP Financial, Inc., our logo and other trademarks of KCAP Financial, Inc. are the property of KCAP Financial, Inc. All other trademarks or trade names referred to in this Annual Report are the property of their respective owners.

NOTE ABOUT FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report includes forward-looking statements. The matters discussed in this Annual Report, as well as in future oral and written statements by management of KCAP Financial, Inc., that are forward-looking statements are based on current management expectations that involve substantial risks and uncertainties which could cause actual results to differ materially from the results expressed in, or implied by, these forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements relate to future events or our future financial performance. We generally identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “expects,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “could,” “intends,” “target,” “projects,” “contemplates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “predicts,” “potential” or “continue” or the negative of these terms or other similar words, although not all forward-looking statements include these words. Important assumptions include our ability to originate new investments, achieve certain margins and levels of profitability, the availability of additional capital, and the ability to maintain certain debt to asset ratios. In light of these and other uncertainties, the inclusion of a projection or forward-looking statement in this Annual Report should not be regarded as a representation by us that our plans or objectives will be achieved. The forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report include statements as to:

our future operating results;
our business prospects and the prospects of our existing and prospective portfolio companies;
the return or impact of current and future investments;
our contractual arrangements and other relationships with third parties;
the dependence of our future success on the general economy and its impact on the industries in which we invest;
the financial condition and ability of our existing and prospective portfolio companies to achieve their objectives;
our expected financings and investments;
our regulatory structure and tax treatment;
our ability to operate as a business development company and a regulated investment company, including the impact of changes in laws or regulations governing our operations or the operations of our portfolio companies, including Katonah Debt Advisors, L.L.C. and Trimaran Advisors, L.L.C. (the “Asset Manager Affiliates”);
the adequacy of our cash resources and working capital;
the timing of cash flows, if any, from the operations of our portfolio companies, including the Asset Manager Affiliates;
the impact of a protracted decline in the liquidity of credit markets on our business;
the impact of fluctuations in interest rates on our business;
the valuation of our investments in portfolio companies, particularly those having no liquid trading market;
our ability to recover unrealized losses;


 
 

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market conditions and our ability to access additional capital; and
the timing, form and amount of any dividend distributions.

For a discussion of factors that could cause our actual results to differ from forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report, please see the discussion under “Risk Factors” in Item 1A. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements made in this Annual Report relate only to events as of the date on which the statements are made. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statement to reflect events or circumstances occurring after the date of this Annual Report unless required by law.


 
 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
  Page
Part I
        

Item 1.

Business

    1  

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

    17  

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

    42  

Item 2.

Properties

    42  

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

    42  

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

    42  
Part II
        

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

    43  

Item 6.

Selected Financial Data

    46  

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

    48  

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

    66  

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

    67  

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

    67  

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

    67  

Item 9B.

Other Information

    68  
Part III
        

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

    69  

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

    69  

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

    69  

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

    69  

Item 14.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

    69  
Part IV
        

Item 15.

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

    70  
Signatures     71  
Financial Statements     F-1  

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PART I

Item 1. Business

GENERAL

We are an internally managed, non-diversified closed-end investment company that is regulated as a Business Development Company, or BDC under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the “1940 Act”). We have three principal areas of investments:

First, the Company originates, structures, and invests in senior secured term loans and mezzanine debt primarily in privately-held middle market companies (the “Debt Securities Portfolio”). In addition, from time to time the Company may invest in the equity securities of privately held middle market companies.

Second, the Company has invested in asset management companies (Katonah Debt Advisors and Trimaran Advisors, collectively the “Asset Manager Affiliates”) that manage collateralized loan obligation funds (“CLO Funds”).

Third, the Company invests in debt and subordinated securities issued by CLOs (“CLO Fund Securities”). These CLO Fund Securities are primarily managed by our Asset Manager Affiliates, but from time-to-time the Company makes investments in CLO Fund Securities managed by other asset managers. The CLO Funds typically invest in broadly syndicated loans, high-yield bonds and other credit instruments.

The Company may also invest in other investments such as loans to larger, publicly-traded companies, high-yield bonds and distressed debt securities. The Company may also receive warrants or options to purchase common stock in connection with its debt investments.

In our Debt Securities Portfolio, our investment objective is to generate current income and, to a lesser extent, capital appreciation from the investments in senior secured term loans, mezzanine debt and selected equity investments in privately-held middle market companies. We define the middle market as comprising companies with earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (“EBITDA”) of $10 million to $50 million and/or total debt of $25 million to $150 million. We primarily invest in first and second lien term loans which, because of their priority in a company’s capital structure, we expect will have lower default rates and higher rates of recovery of principal if there is a default and which we expect will create a stable stream of interest income. The investments in our Debt Securities Portfolio are all or predominantly below investment grade, and have speculative characteristics with respect to the issuer’s capacity to pay interest and repay principal. While our primary investment focus is on making loans to, and selected equity investments in, privately-held middle market companies, we may also invest in other investments such as loans to smaller companies or larger, publicly-traded companies, high-yield bonds and distressed debt securities. We may also receive warrants or options to purchase common stock in connection with our debt investments.

From our Asset Manager Affiliates investment, we expect to receive recurring cash distributions and generate capital appreciation through the addition of new CLO Funds managed by our Asset Manager Affiliates. We may also seek to monetize our investment in the Asset Manager Affiliates if and when business conditions warrant. The Asset Manager Affiliates manage CLO Funds that invest in broadly syndicated loans, high-yield bonds and other credit instruments. The Asset Manager Affiliates are registered under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 (the “Advisers Act”), and are each managed independently from KCAP by a separate management team (however, certain of the Company’s executive officers also act in similar capacities for one or both of the Asset Manager Affiliates).

In addition, our investments in CLO Fund Securities, which are primarily made up of minority investments in the subordinated securities or preferred stock of CLO Funds raised and managed by our Asset Manager Affiliates, are anticipated to provide the Company with recurring cash distributions and complement the growth of our investment in the Asset Manager Affiliates.

Because we are internally managed by our executive officers under the supervision of our Board of Directors and do not depend on a third party investment advisor, we do not pay investment advisory fees, but instead incur the operating costs associated with employing investment and portfolio management professionals.

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As a BDC, we are required to comply with regulatory requirements, including limitations on our use of debt. We are permitted to, and expect to continue to, finance our investments through borrowings. However, as a BDC, we are only generally allowed to borrow amounts such that our asset coverage, as defined in the 1940 Act, equals at least 200% after such borrowing. The 1940 Act also generally prohibits us from declaring any cash dividend or distribution on any class of our capital stock if our asset coverage is below 200% at the time of the declaration of the dividend or distribution.

Subject to market conditions, we intend to grow our portfolio of assets by raising additional capital, including through the prudent use of leverage available to us. Because we also recognize the need to have funds available for operating our business and to make investments, we seek to have adequate liquidity at all times to cover normal cyclical swings in funding availability and to allow us to meet abnormal and unexpected funding requirements. As a result, we may hold varying amounts of cash and other short-term investments from time-to-time for liquidity purposes.

We have elected to be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a Regulated Investment Company (“RIC”) under the Internal Revenue Code (the “Code”) and intend to operate in a manner to maintain our RIC tax treatment. Accordingly, we generally will not pay corporate-level U.S. federal income taxes on any net ordinary tax-basis taxable income or capital gains that we timely distribute to our shareholders as dividends. To maintain our RIC tax treatment, we must meet the specified source-of-income and asset diversification requirements and distribute to our stockholders annually at least 90% of our net ordinary tax-basis taxable income and realized net short-term capital gains in excess of realized net long-term capital losses, if any, for each year.

We were formed in August 2006, as Kohlberg Capital Corporation. In December 2006, we completed our initial public offering (“IPO”), which raised net proceeds of approximately $200 million after the exercise of the underwriters’ over-allotment option. In connection with our IPO, we issued an additional 3,484,333 shares of our common stock in exchange for the ownership interests of Katonah Debt Advisors and certain CLO Fund Securities.

In April 2008, the Company completed a rights offering that resulted in the issuance of 3.1 million shares of our common stock, and net proceeds of $27 million.

On February 29, 2012, the Company purchased Trimaran Advisors, L.L.C. (“Trimaran Advisors”), a CLO manager similar to Katonah Debt Advisors, L.L.C. (“Katonah Debt Advisors”), with assets under management of approximately $1.5 billion, for total consideration of $13.0 million in cash and 3,600,000 shares of the Company’s common stock. Contemporaneous with the acquisition of Trimaran Advisors, the Company acquired from Trimaran Advisors equity interests in certain CLO Funds managed by Trimaran Advisors for an aggregate purchase price of $12.0 million in cash. As of December 31, 2015, the Asset Manager Affiliates had approximately $2.7 billion of par value assets under management.

On July 11, 2012, we changed our name from Kohlberg Capital Corporation to KCAP Financial, Inc.

On February 14, 2013, the Company completed a public offering of 5,232,500 shares of common stock, which included the underwriters’ full exercise of their option to purchase up to 682,500 shares of common stock, at a price of $9.75 per share, raising approximately $51.0 million in gross proceeds. In conjunction with this offering, the Company also sold 200,000 shares of common stock to a member of its Board of Directors, at a price of $9.31125 per share, raising approximately $1.9 million in gross proceeds.

On October 6, 2014, the Company priced a follow-on public offering of 3.0 million shares of its common stock at a price of $8.02 per share. The offering raised net proceeds of approximately $23.8 million, net of underwriting discounts and offering expenses.

Including employees of our Asset Manager Affiliates, we employ an experienced team of 18 investment professionals and 23 total staff members. Dayl W. Pearson, our President and Chief Executive Officer, and one of our directors, has been in the financial services industry for over 39 years. During the past 25 years, Mr. Pearson has focused almost exclusively on the middle market and has originated, structured and underwritten over $7 billion of debt and equity securities. R. Jon Corless, our Chief Investment Officer with primary responsibility for the Debt Securities Portfolio, has managed investment portfolios in excess of

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$4 billion at several institutions and has been responsible for managing portfolios of leveraged loans, high-yield bonds, mezzanine securities and middle market loans. Dominick J. Mazzitelli is the President and portfolio manager of the Asset Manager Affiliates. He has over 20 years of experience within the credit markets, with most of his career focused on the leveraged finance markets. Edward U. Gilpin, our Chief Financial Officer, Secretary and Treasurer, has been in financial services for over 30 years, with significant experience in overseeing the financial operations and reporting for asset management businesses, including the fair value accounting of CLO securities owned by them.

Under the investment company rules and regulations pursuant to Article 6 of Regulation S-X and the Financial Standards Board Accounting Standards Codification 946, Financial Services — Investment Companies (ASC 946), we are precluded from consolidating portfolio company investments, including those in which we have a controlling interest, unless the portfolio company is another investment company. An exception to this general principle in ASC 946 occurs if we own a controlled operating company that provides all or substantially all of its services directly to us, or to an investment company of ours. Other than KCAP Funding, Kohlberg Capital Funding I LLC, KCAP Senior Funding I Holdings LLC and KCAP Senior Funding I LLC, none of the investments made by us qualify for this exception. Therefore, our portfolio investments, including our investments in the Asset Manager Affiliates, are carried on the balance sheet at fair value with any adjustments to fair value recognized as “Net Change in Unrealized Appreciation (Depreciation)” in our statement of operations until the investment is exited, at which point any gain or loss on exit is reclassified and recognized as a “Net Realized Gain (Loss) from Investments.”

Our common stock is traded on The NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “KCAP.” The net asset value per share of our common stock at December 31, 2015 was $5.82. On December 31, 2015, the last reported sale price of a share of our common stock on The NASDAQ Global Select Market was $4.07. In addition, our 7.375% notes due 2019 (“7.375% Notes Due 2019”) are traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “KAP.”

Our Corporate Information

Our principal executive offices are located at 295 Madison Avenue, 6th Floor, New York, New York 10017, and our telephone number is (212) 455-8300. We maintain a website on the Internet at http://www.kcapfinancial.com. The information contained in our website is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report. We make available on or through our website certain reports and amendments to those reports that we file with or furnish to the SEC in accordance with the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”). These include our annual reports on Form 10-K, our quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and our current reports on Form 8-K. We make this information available on our website free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file the information with, or furnish it to, the SEC.

Investment Portfolio

Our investment portfolio generates investment income, which is generally used to pay principal and interest on our borrowings, operating expenses, and to fund our distributions to our stockholders. Our investment portfolio consists of three primary components: the Debt Securities Portfolio, the CLO Fund Securities and our investment in our wholly owned Asset Manager Affiliates.

Debt Securities Portfolio.  We target privately-held middle market companies that have strong historical cash flows, experienced management teams and identifiable and defendable market positions in industries with positive dynamics. We generally target companies that generate positive cash flows because we look to cash flows as the primary source for servicing debt.

We employ a disciplined approach in the selection and monitoring of our investments. Generally, we target investments that will generate a current return through interest income to provide for stability in our shareholder distributions and place less reliance on realized capital gains from our investments. Our investment philosophy is focused on preserving capital with an appropriate return profile relative to risk. Our investment due diligence and selection generally focuses on an underlying issuer’s net cash flow after capital expenditures to service its debt rather than on multiples of net income, valuations or other broad benchmarks which frequently miss the nuances of an issuer’s business and prospective financial performance. We also generally avoid concentrations in any one industry or issuer. We manage risk by following our internal credit policies and procedures.

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When we extend senior and junior secured term loans, we will generally take a security interest in the available assets of the portfolio company, including the equity interests of its subsidiaries, which we expect to help mitigate the risk that we will not be repaid. Nonetheless, there is a possibility that our lien could be subordinated to claims of other creditors. Structurally, mezzanine debt ranks subordinate in priority of payment to senior term loans and is often unsecured. Relative to equity, mezzanine debt ranks senior to common and preferred equity in a borrower’s capital structure. Typically, mezzanine debt has elements of both debt and equity instruments, offering the fixed returns in the form of interest payments associated with a loan, while providing an opportunity to participate in the capital appreciation of a borrower, if any, through an equity interest that is typically in the form of equity purchased at the time the mezzanine loan is repaid or warrants to purchase equity at a future date at a fixed cost. Mezzanine debt generally earns a higher return than senior secured debt due to its higher risk profile and usually less restrictive covenants. The warrants associated with mezzanine debt are typically detachable, which allows lenders to receive repayment of their principal on an agreed amortization schedule while retaining an equity interest in the borrower. Mezzanine debt also may include a “put” feature, which permits the holder to sell its equity interest back to the borrower at a price determined through an agreed formula.

Below are summary attributes for our Debt Securities Portfolio as of and for the year ended December 31, 2015:

represented approximately 69% of total investment portfolio;
contained credit instruments issued by corporate borrowers;
primarily comprised of senior secured and junior secured loans (68% and 13% of debt securities, respectively);
spread across 26 different industries and 87 different entities;
average par balance per investment of approximately $3.3 million;
all but 1 issuer (representing less than 1% of amortized cost of total investments) were current on their debt service obligations; and
weighted average interest rate of 7.4% on income producing debt investments.

Our investments generally average between $1 million to $20 million, although particular investments may be larger or smaller. The size of individual investments will vary according to their priority in a company’s capital structure, with larger investments in more secure positions in an effort to maximize capital preservation. The size of our investments and maturity dates may vary as follows:

senior secured term loans from $2 to $20 million maturing in five to seven years;
second lien term loans from $5 to $15 million maturing in six to eight years;
senior unsecured loans from $5 to $23 million maturing in six to eight years;
mezzanine loans from $5 to $15 million maturing in seven to ten years; and
equity investments from $1 to $5 million.

Asset Manager Affiliates.  We expect to receive recurring cash distributions and seek to generate capital appreciation from our investment in our Asset Manager Affiliates. We may also seek to monetize our investment the Asset Manager Affiliates if and when business conditions warrant. As a manager of the CLO Funds, our Asset Manager Affiliates receive contractual and recurring management fees from the CLO Funds for their management and advisory services. In addition, our Asset Manager Affiliates may also earn income related to net interest on assets accumulated for future CLO issuances on which they have provided a first loss guaranty in connection with loan warehouse arrangements for their CLO Funds.

The annual management fees that our Asset Manager Affiliates receive are generally based on a fixed percentage of the par value of assets under management and are recurring in nature for the term of the CLO Fund, so long as the Asset Manager Affiliate manages the fund. As a result, the management fees earned by our Asset Manager Affiliates are not subject to market value fluctuations in the underlying collateral. The

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management fees that our Asset Manager Affiliates receive generally have three contractual components: a senior management fee, a subordinated management fee and the possibility of an incentive management fee if certain conditions are met. Currently, all CLO Funds managed by the Asset Manager Affiliates are paying both their senior and subordinated management fees on a current basis. During 2015, three CLO Funds have achieved the minimum investment return threshold and our Asset Manager Affiliates received incentive fees from those CLO Funds.

Subject to the conditions of the capital markets, we expect to continue to make investments in CLO Funds managed by our Asset Manager Affiliates, which we believe will provide us with a current cash investment return. We believe that these investments will provide our Asset Manager Affiliates with greater opportunities to access new sources of capital, which will ultimately increase our Asset Manager Affiliates’ assets under management and resulting management fee income. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors” for a discussion of the risks relating to our ability to access the capital markets and the impact of certain risk retention rules which require that we or our Asset Manager Affiliates make and maintain certain minimum investments in CLO Funds managed by the Asset Manager Affiliates.

The after-tax net free cash flow that our Asset Manager Affiliates generate through the fees they receive for managing CLO Funds and after paying their expenses pursuant to an overhead allocation agreement with the Company associated with their operations, including compensation of their employees, may be distributed to us. Distributions from our Asset Manager Affiliates’ tax basis earnings and profits are recorded as “Dividends From Asset Manager Affiliates” in our financial statements when declared. From time to time our Asset Manager Affiliates may distribute cash in excess of tax basis earnings and profits. This excess is deemed a return of capital (“ROC”) and is recorded in “unrealized gains (losses)” on the statement of operations.

Below are summary attributes for our Asset Manager Affiliates, as of and for the year ended December 31, 2015:

represented approximately 14% of total investment portfolio;
had approximately $2.7 billion par value of assets under management;
receive contractual and recurring asset management fees based on par value of managed investments;
may receive an incentive management fee from a CLO Fund, provided that the CLO Fund achieves a minimum designated return on investment. In 2015, three such funds paid incentive fees to our Asset Manager Affiliates;
distributions paid by our Asset Manager Affiliates are an additional source of income to pay our distributions to our stockholders and service our debt obligations; and
for the year ended December 31, 2015, we received cash distributions of approximately $9.1 million, of which $5.3 million was recognized as investment income from our Asset Manager Affiliates and the remaining amount as a return of capital.

CLO Fund Securities.  Subject to the conditions of the capital markets, we expect to continue to make investments in the CLO Funds managed by our Asset Manager Affiliates, which we believe will provide us with a current cash investment return. We believe that these investments will provide our Asset Manager Affiliates with greater opportunities to access new sources of capital which will ultimately increase our Asset Manager Affiliates’ assets under management and resulting management fee income.

Below are summary attributes for our CLO Fund Securities, as of and for the year-ended December 31, 2015, unless otherwise specified:

CLO Fund Securities represented approximately 14% of total investment portfolio at December 31, 2015;
98% of CLO Fund Securities represented investments in subordinated securities or equity securities issued by CLO Funds and 2% of CLO Fund Securities was a rated note;

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all CLO Funds invested primarily in credit instruments issued by corporate borrowers;
GAAP-basis investment income of $15.7 million; cash distributions received of approximately $24.9 million (approximately $14.7 million taxable distributable income).

Structure and Process

Structure

We are an internally managed BDC with 24 full-time employees (inclusive of employees of our Asset Manager Affiliates). The following are our key functional teams that execute our business strategy:

Our BDC investment team consists of 7 professionals who originate, structure, and invest in senior secured term loans, mezzanine debt and selected equity securities primarily in privately-held middle market companies as well as CLO Funds.
Our Asset Manager Affiliates team consists of 8 professionals who structure, purchase and manage portfolios of primarily broadly syndicated corporate senior debt for CLOs.
The remainder of the employees include senior management, operations, financial accounting, compliance and human resources.

Process

KCAP will review potential investment opportunities and conduct due diligence that will typically include a review of historical and prospective financial information, participation in a presentation held by the prospective portfolio company’s management and/or the transaction sponsor, a review of the prospective portfolio company’s product or service, an analysis and understanding of the drivers of the particular industry in which the prospective portfolio company operates, and an assessment of the debt service capabilities of the prospective portfolio company under a variety of assumed forecast scenarios.

Due to our ability to source transactions through multiple channels, we expect to continue to maintain a pipeline of opportunities to allow comparative risk return analysis and selectivity. By focusing on the drivers of revenue and cash flow, we develop our own underwriting cases, and multiple stress and event specific case scenarios for each company analyzed.

We focus on lending and investing opportunities in:

companies with EBITDA of $10 to $50 million;
companies with financing needs of $25 to $150 million;
companies purchased by well-regarded private equity sponsors;
non-sponsored companies with successful management and systems;
high-yield bonds and broadly syndicated loans to larger companies on a selective basis; and
equity co-investment in companies where we see substantial opportunity for capital appreciation.

We expect to continue to source investment opportunities from:

private equity sponsors;
regional investment banks for non-sponsored companies;
other middle market lenders with whom we can participate in loans; and
our Asset Manager Affiliates, with regard to high-yield bonds and syndicated loans.

In our experience, good credit judgment is based on a thorough understanding of both the qualitative and quantitative factors that determine a company’s performance. Our analysis begins with an understanding of the fundamentals of the industry in which a company operates, including the current economic environment and the outlook for the industry. We also focus on the company’s relative position within the industry and its historical ability to weather economic cycles. Other key qualitative factors include the experience and depth of the management team and the financial sponsor, if any.

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Only after we have a comprehensive understanding of the qualitative factors do we focus on quantitative metrics. We believe that with the context provided by the qualitative analysis, we can gain a better understanding of a company’s financial performance. We analyze a potential portfolio company’s sales growth and margins in the context of its competition as well as its ability to manage its working capital requirements and its ability to generate consistent cash flow. Based upon this historical analysis, we develop a set of projections which represents a reasonable underwriting case of most likely outcomes for the company over the period of our investment. We also look at potential downside cases to determine a company’s ability to service its debt in a stressed credit environment.

Elements of the qualitative analysis we use in evaluating investment opportunities include the following:

industry fundamentals;
competitive position and market share;
past ability to work through historical down-cycles;
quality of financial and technology infrastructure;
sourcing risks and opportunities;
labor and union strategy;
technology risk;
diversity of customer base and product lines;
quality of financial sponsor (if applicable); and
acquisition and integration history.

Elements of the quantitative analysis we use in evaluating investment opportunities include the following:

income statement analysis of growth and margin trends;
cash flow analysis of capital expenditures and free cash flow;
financial ratio and market share standing among comparable companies;
financial projections: underwriting versus stress case;
event specific credit modeling;
credit profile trend;
future capital expenditure needs and asset sale plans;
downside protection to limit losses in an event of default;
risk adjusted returns and relative value analysis; and
enterprise and asset valuations.

The origination, structuring and credit approval processes are fully integrated. Our credit team is directly involved in all due diligence and analysis prior to the formal credit approval process by the Investment Committee.

Investment Committee

The Investment Committee consists of the Chairman of the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer, the Chief Investment Officer, and an additional member of the Board of Directors. The Investment Committee serves to provide investment consistency and adherence to our core investment philosophy and policies.

Upon completion of the due diligence investigation, the underwriting team of investment professionals/analysts will prepare a credit underwriting memorandum that will summarize the contemplated transaction, present the investment highlights, analyze the risk in the transaction and mitigating factors to those risks,

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analyze the prospective portfolio’s historical financial statements, financial projections, industry and management team, and will then present this memorandum with its recommendations to the Investment Committee for review and approval.

The approval of a majority of the Investment Committee will be required for all investments of less than $15 million, and the unanimous approval of the Investment Committee will be required for investments of $15 million or greater.

Monitoring

Our management team has significant experience monitoring credit portfolios. Along with origination and credit analysis, portfolio management is one of the key elements of our business. Most of our investments will not be liquid and, therefore, we must prepare to act quickly if potential issues arise so that we can work closely with management and the private equity sponsor, if applicable, of the portfolio company to take any necessary remedial action. In addition, most of our senior management team, including the credit team at the Asset Manager Affiliates, has substantial workout and restructuring experience.

In order to assist us in detecting issues with our Debt Securities Portfolio companies as early as possible, we perform a financial analysis at least quarterly on each portfolio company. This analysis typically includes:

A summary of the portfolio company’s current total credit exposure as well as the KCAP portion of this exposure.
A summary and update of the portfolio company’s financial condition and performance, including but not limited to, performance versus plan, deterioration/improvement in market position, or industry fundamentals, management changes or additions, and ongoing business strategy.
Reaffirmation of, or proposal to change, the risk rating of the underlying investment.
A summary of the portfolio company’s financial covenant results vis a vis financial covenant levels established in the credit agreement.

Watch list credits are followed closely and discussed periodically with the Chief Investment Officer, as appropriate.

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DETERMINATION OF NET ASSET VALUE

We determine the net asset value per share of our common stock quarterly. The net asset value per share is equal to the value of our total assets minus liabilities and any preferred stock outstanding divided by the total number of shares of common stock outstanding.

Our net asset value per share was $5.82 and $6.94 as of December 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014, respectively. Since we report our assets at fair value for each reporting period, net asset value also represents the amount of stockholders’ equity per share for the reporting period. Our net asset value is comprised mostly of investment assets less debt and other liabilities:

       
  December 31, 2015   December 31, 2014
     Fair Value(1)   per Share(1)   Fair Value(1)   per Share(1)
Investments at fair value:
                                   
Investments in money market accounts(2)   $ 2,129,381     $ 0.06     $ 1,602,741     $ 0.04  
Investments in debt securities     284,639,244       7.67       320,143,170       8.70  
Investments in CLO Fund Securities     55,872,382       1.51       77,514,903       2.11  
Investments in equity securities     9,548,488       0.26       8,119,681       0.22  
Investments in Asset Manager Affiliates     57,381,000       1.55       72,326,000       1.97  
Cash                 1,220,798       0.03  
Restricted Cash(3)     7,138,272       0.19       19,325,550       0.53  
All other assets     8,533,574       0.23       10,193,954       0.28  
Total Assets   $ 425,242,341     $ 11.47     $ 510,446,797     $ 13.88  
Convertible Notes   $ 19,299,000     $ 0.52     $ 38,647,000     $ 1.05  
7.375% Notes Due 2019     41,400,000       1.12       41,400,000       1.13  
Notes payable – KCAP Senior Funding I, LLC (net of discount)     144,442,405       3.90       143,837,593       3.91  
Payable for open trades                 18,293,725       0.50  
Other liabilities     4,000,466       0.11       12,951,778       0.35  
Total Liabilities     209,141,871       5.65       255,130,096       6.94  
NET ASSET VALUE   $ 216,100,470     $ 5.82     $ 255,316,701     $ 6.94  

(1) Our balance sheet at fair value and resultant net asset value are calculated on a basis consistent with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”). Our per share presentation of such amounts (other than net asset value per share) is an internally derived non-GAAP performance measure calculated by dividing the applicable balance sheet amount by outstanding shares. We believe that the per share amounts for such balance sheet items are helpful in analyzing our balance sheet both quantitatively and qualitatively.
(2) Includes restricted cash held under employee benefit plans.
(3) Consists of cash held for quarterly interest and principal payments to the holders of notes Issued by KCAP Senior Funding I, LLC.

Valuation

As a BDC, we invest primarily in illiquid securities, including loans to and warrants of private companies and interests in other illiquid securities, such as interests in CLO Fund Securities. These portfolio investments may be subject to restrictions on resale and will generally have no established trading market. As a result, our Board of Directors determines in good faith the fair value of our portfolio investments pursuant to a valuation policy developed in accordance with the Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting Standards Codification 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures (“ASC 820: Fair Value”), and a valuation process approved by our Board of Directors and in accordance with the 1940 Act. Our valuation policy is intended to provide a consistent basis for determining the fair value of the portfolio. Our Board of Directors is ultimately and solely responsible for making a good faith determination of the fair value of portfolio investments on a quarterly basis. The Company uses an independent valuation firm to provide third party valuation consulting services to the Company and the Board of Directors. For additional information concerning valuation, see

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“Item 7: Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations —  Valuation of Portfolio Investments”; and Notes 2 and 4 to the financial statements.

Competition

Our primary competitors also provide financing to prospective portfolio companies. These include commercial banks, specialty finance companies, hedge funds, structured investment funds, other BDCs and investment banks. Our competitors may have a lower cost of funds, and many have access to funding sources that are not available to us. Many of these entities have greater managerial resources than we have, and the 1940 Act imposes certain regulatory restrictions on us as a BDC to which many of our competitors are not subject. For additional information concerning the competitive risks we face, see “Item 1A. Risk Factors — Risks Related to Our Business and Structure — We operate in a highly competitive market for investment opportunities.”

We believe that we provide a unique combination of an experienced middle market loan origination and a CLO management platform at the Asset Manager Affiliates that includes experienced lenders with broad industry expertise. We believe that this combination of resources provides us with a thorough credit process and multiple sources of investment opportunities that make us attractive within our market.

Employees

As of December 31, 2015, we and our Asset Manager Affiliates had 24 employees, including an experienced team of 15 investment professionals.

REGULATION

The following discussion is a general summary of some of the material prohibitions and restrictions governing BDCs generally. It does not purport to be a complete description of all the laws and regulations affecting BDCs.

A BDC is a unique kind of investment company that primarily focuses on investing in or lending to private or relatively small publicly traded companies and making managerial assistance available to them. The 1940 Act contains prohibitions and restrictions relating to transactions between BDCs and their directors and officers and certain other related persons and requires that a majority of the directors be persons other than “interested persons,” as that term is defined in the 1940 Act. We have implemented certain procedures to ensure that we do not engage in any prohibited transactions with any persons affiliated with us.

In addition, the 1940 Act provides that we may not change the nature of our business so as to cease to be, or to withdraw our election as, a BDC unless approved by a majority of our outstanding voting securities. A majority of the outstanding voting securities of a company is defined under the 1940 Act as the lesser of (i) 67% or more of such company’s shares present at a meeting or represented by proxy if more than 50% of the outstanding shares of such company are present or represented by proxy or (ii) more than 50% of the outstanding shares of such company.

Qualifying Assets

Under the 1940 Act, a BDC may not acquire any asset other than assets of the type listed in Section 55(a) of the 1940 Act, or “Qualifying Assets,” unless, at the time the acquisition is made, Qualifying Assets represent at least 70% of the company’s total assets. The principal categories of Qualifying Assets relevant to our business are the following:

Securities of an “eligible portfolio company” purchased in transactions not involving any public offering. An “eligible portfolio company” is defined in the 1940 Act as any issuer which:
(a) is organized under the laws of, and has its principal place of business in, the United States;
(b) is not an investment company (other than a small business investment company wholly-owned by the BDC) or a company that would be an investment company but for certain exclusions under the 1940 Act; and

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(c) satisfies any of the following:
(i) does not have any class of securities listed on a national securities exchange (or, if it has a class of securities listed on a national securities exchange, has an aggregate market value of outstanding voting and non-voting common equity of less than $250 million);
(ii) is controlled by a BDC or a group of companies including a BDC and the BDC has an affiliated person who is a director of the eligible portfolio company;
(iii) is a small and solvent company having total assets of not more than $4 million and capital and surplus of not less than $2 million; or
(iv) does not have outstanding any class of securities with respect to which a broker or dealer may extend margin credit.
Securities of any eligible portfolio company that we control;
Securities purchased in a private transaction from a U.S. issuer that is not an investment company and is in bankruptcy and subject to reorganization;
Securities received in exchange for or distributed on or with respect to securities described above, or pursuant to the conversion of warrants or rights relating to such securities; and
Cash, cash equivalents, U.S. government securities or high-quality debt securities maturing in one year or less from the time of investment.

Significant Managerial Assistance

A BDC must be organized and have its principal place of business in the United States and must be operated for the purpose of making investments in the types of securities described above. In addition, BDCs must generally offer to make available to such issuer of the securities (other than small and solvent companies described above) significant managerial assistance; except that, where we purchase such securities in conjunction with one or more other persons acting together, one of the other persons is the group may make available such managerial assistance. Making available significant managerial assistance means, among other things, any arrangement whereby the BDC, through its directors, officers or employees, offers to provide, and, if accepted, does so provide, guidance and counsel concerning the management, operations or business objectives and policies of a portfolio company through monitoring of portfolio company operations, selective participation in board and management meetings, consulting with and advising a portfolio company’s officers or other organizational or financial guidance.

Temporary Investments

Pending investment in other types of “qualifying assets,” as described above, our investments may consist of cash, cash equivalents, U.S. government securities or high quality debt securities maturing in one year or less from the time of investment, which we refer to, collectively, as temporary investments, so that at least 70% of our assets are “qualifying assets.” Typically, we invest in U.S. treasury bills or in repurchase agreements, provided that such agreements are fully collateralized by cash or securities issued by the U.S. government or its agencies. A repurchase agreement involves the purchase by an investor, such as us, of a specified security and the simultaneous agreement by the seller to repurchase it at an agreed upon future date and at a price which is greater than the purchase price by an amount that reflects an agreed-upon interest rate. There is no percentage restriction on the proportion of our assets that may be invested in such repurchase agreements. However, if more than 25% of our total assets constitute repurchase agreements that are treated, under applicable tax rules, as being issued by a single counterparty, we would not meet the diversification tests imposed on us by the Code to qualify for tax treatment as a RIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Thus, we do not intend to enter into repurchase agreements treated as issued, under applicable tax rules, by a single counterparty in excess of this limit. We monitor the creditworthiness of the counterparties with which we enter into repurchase agreement transactions.

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Indebtedness; Coverage Ratio

We are permitted, under specified conditions, to issue multiple classes of indebtedness and one class of stock senior to our common stock if our asset coverage, as defined in the 1940 Act, is at least equal to 200% immediately after each such issuance. In addition, with respect to certain types of senior securities, we must make provisions to prohibit any dividend distribution to our stockholders or the repurchase of certain of our securities, unless we meet the applicable asset coverage ratios at the time of the dividend distribution or repurchase. We may also borrow amounts up to 5% of the value of our total assets for temporary purposes. For a discussion of the risks associated with the resulting leverage, see “Item 1A. Risk Factors — Risks Related to Our Business and Structure — We borrow money, which magnifies the potential for gain or loss on amounts invested and may increase the risk of investing in us.” As of December 31, 2015, our asset coverage ratio was 202%, above the minimum required asset coverage level of 200%.

Common Stock

We are not generally able to issue and sell our common stock at a price below net asset value per share. We may, however, sell our common stock, at a price below the current net asset value of the common stock if our Board of Directors determines that such sale is in our best interests and that of our stockholders, and our stockholders approve such sale. In any such case, the price at which our common stock is to be issued and sold may not be less than a price which, in the determination of our Board of Directors, closely approximates the market value of such common stock (less any distributing commission or discount). We may also make rights offerings to our stockholders at prices per share less than the net asset value per share, subject to applicable requirements of the 1940 Act. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Our Business and Structure — Regulations governing our operation as a BDC affect our ability to, and the way in which we, raise additional capital.”

Code of Ethics

We adopted and maintain a code of ethics pursuant to Rule 17j-1 under the 1940 Act that establishes procedures for personal investments and restricts certain personal securities transactions. Personnel subject to the code may invest in securities for their personal investment accounts, including securities that may be purchased or held by us, so long as such investments are made in accordance with the code’s requirements. A copy of the code of ethics is available on the Corporate Governance section of the Company’s website at http://www.kcapfinancial.com. Our code of ethics may also be reviewed and copied at the Public Reference Room of the SEC at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. You may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. Copies of the code of ethics may be obtained, after paying a duplicating fee, by electronic request at the following e-mail address: publicinfo@sec.gov, or by writing the SEC’s Public Reference Section, Washington, D.C. 20549-0102. In addition, our code of ethics is available on the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov.

Privacy Principles

We are committed to maintaining the privacy of our stockholders and safeguarding their non-public personal information. The following information is provided to help you understand what personal information we collect, how we protect that information and why, in certain cases, we may share information with select other parties.

Generally, we do not receive any non-public personal information relating to our stockholders, although some non-public personal information of our stockholders may become available to us. We do not disclose any non-public personal information about our stockholders or former stockholders to anyone, except as is necessary to service stockholder accounts, such as to a transfer agent, or as otherwise permitted by law.

We restrict access to non-public personal information about our stockholders to our employees with a legitimate business need for the information. We maintain safeguards designed to protect the non-public personal information of our stockholders.

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Proxy Voting Policy and Procedures

Although the securities we hold are not typically voting securities, some of our investments could entitle us to voting rights. If this were to occur we would vote our portfolio securities in the best interest of our stockholders and we would review on a case-by-case basis each proposal submitted to a stockholder vote to determine its impact on the portfolio securities held by us. Although we would generally vote against proposals that we believe may have a negative impact on our portfolio securities, we may vote for such a proposal if we were to believe there exists a compelling long-term reason to do so.

Our voting decisions would be made by our Investment Committee. To ensure that our vote would not the product of a conflict of interest, we would require that (1) anyone involved in the decision making process disclose to our Chief Compliance Officer any potential conflict that he or she is aware of and any contact that he or she has had with any interested party regarding a vote; and (2) employees involved in the decision making process or vote administration are prohibited from revealing how we intend to vote on a proposal to reduce any attempted influence from interested parties.

Other

We are periodically examined by the SEC for compliance with the 1940 Act and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

We are required to provide and maintain a bond issued by a reputable fidelity insurance company to protect us against larceny and embezzlement. Furthermore, as a BDC, we are prohibited from indemnifying any director or officer against any liability to our stockholders arising from willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence or reckless disregard of the duties involved in the conduct of such person’s office.

We are required to adopt and implement written policies and procedures reasonably designed to prevent violation of the federal securities laws and to review these policies and procedures annually for their adequacy and the effectiveness of their implementation. We have a designated Chief Compliance Officer who is responsible for administering these policies and procedures.

TAXATION AS A REGULATED INVESTMENT COMPANY

We have elected to be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a Regulated Investment Company (“RIC”) under subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), and intend to operate in a manner to maintain our RIC tax treatment. As a RIC, we generally will not have to pay corporate-level U.S. federal income taxes on any ordinary income or capital gains that we timely distribute to our stockholders as dividends. To qualify as a RIC, we must, among other things, meet certain source-of-income and asset diversification requirements (as described below). In addition, we must distribute to our stockholders, for each taxable year, at least 90% of our “investment company taxable income,” which is generally our net ordinary taxable income plus the excess of our realized net short-term capital gains over our realized net long-term capital losses (the “Annual Distribution Requirement”).

Taxation as a RIC

For any taxable year in which we qualify as a RIC and satisfy the Annual Distribution Requirement, we generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the portion of our investment company taxable income and net capital gain, defined as net long-term capital gains in excess of net short-term capital losses, we distribute to stockholders. We will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at the regular corporate rates on any net ordinary income or net capital gain not distributed (or deemed distributed) to our stockholders.

We will be subject to a 4% nondeductible U.S. federal excise tax on our undistributed income unless we distribute in a timely manner an amount at least equal to the sum of (a) 98% of our net ordinary income for each calendar year, (b) 98.2% of our capital gain net income for the one-year period ending October 31 in that calendar year and (c) any income or gains realized, but not distributed, in the preceding year and on which we paid no U.S. federal income tax (the “Excise Tax Avoidance Requirement”). For this purpose, however, any net ordinary income or capital gain net income retained by us that is subject to corporate-level U.S. federal income tax for the tax year ending in that calendar year will be considered to have been

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distributed by year end (or earlier if estimated taxes are paid). Although we generally endeavor to make sufficient distributions each taxable year to satisfy the Excise Tax Avoidance Requirement, we may incur a U.S. federal excise tax.

To qualify as a RIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we must, among other things:

qualify to be regulated as a business development company under the 1940 Act at all times during each taxable year;
derive in each taxable year at least 90% of our gross income from dividends, interest, payments with respect to certain securities loans, gains from the sale of stock or other securities, or other income derived with respect to our business of investing in such stock or securities, and net income derived from interests in “qualified publicly traded partnerships” (which generally are partnerships that are traded on an established securities market or tradable on a secondary market, other than partnerships that derive 90% of their income from interest, dividends and other permitted RIC income) (the “90% Income Test”); and
diversify our holdings so that at the end of each quarter of the taxable year:
º at least 50% of the value of our assets consists of cash, cash equivalents, U.S. government securities, securities of other RICs, and other securities if such other securities of any one issuer do not represent more than 5% of the value of our assets or more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of the issuer; and
º no more than 25% of the value of our assets is invested in the securities, other than U.S. government securities or securities of other RICs, of one issuer or of two or more issuers that are controlled, as determined under applicable tax rules, by us and that are engaged in the same or similar or related trades or businesses or in the securities of one or more qualified publicly traded partnerships (the “Diversification Tests”).

If we do not satisfy the requirements of the Diversification Tests as of the end of any quarter, we will not lose our status as RIC provided that (i) we satisfied the requirements in a prior quarter and (ii) our failure to satisfy the requirements in the current quarter is not due in whole or in part to an acquisition of any security or other property.

We may invest in partnerships, including qualified publicly traded partnerships, which may result in our being subject to state, local or foreign income, franchise or withholding liabilities.

Any underwriting fees paid by us are not deductible. We may be required to recognize taxable income in circumstances in which we do not receive cash. For example, if we hold debt obligations that are treated under applicable tax rules as having original issue discount (such as debt instruments with payment-in-kind (“PIK”) interest or, in certain cases, with increasing interest rates or issued with warrants), we must include in income each year a portion of the original issue discount that accrues over the life of the obligation, regardless of whether cash representing such income is received by us in the same taxable year. Because any original issue discount accrued will be included in our investment company taxable income for the year of accrual, we may be required to make a distribution to our stockholders in order to satisfy the Annual Distribution Requirement, even though we will not have received any corresponding cash amount. If we are not able to obtain sufficient cash from other sources to satisfy the Annual Distribution Requirement, we may fail to qualify as a RIC and become subject to corporate-level U.S. federal income taxes on all of our taxable income without the benefit of the dividends-paid deduction.

Although we do not presently expect to do so, we are authorized to borrow funds and to sell assets in order (i) to satisfy the Annual Distribution Requirement and to otherwise eliminate our liability for U.S. federal income and excise taxes and (ii) to satisfy the Diversification Tests. However, under the 1940 Act, we are not permitted to borrow additional funds or to make distributions to our stockholders while our debt obligations and other senior securities are outstanding unless a certain “asset coverage” test is met. See “Regulation — Indebtedness; Coverage Ratio.” Moreover, our ability to dispose of assets to meet the Annual Distribution Requirement, the Excise Tax Avoidance Requirement or the Diversification Tests may be limited by (a) the illiquid nature of our portfolio and/or (b) other requirements relating to our qualification as

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a RIC. If we dispose of assets in order to meet the Annual Distribution Requirement, the Excise Tax Avoidance Requirement, or the Diversification Tests, we may make such dispositions at times that, from an investment standpoint, are not advantageous.

Certain of our investment practices may be subject to special and complex U.S. federal income tax provisions that may, among other things, (a) treat dividends that would otherwise constitute qualified dividend income as non-qualified dividend income, (b) treat dividends that would otherwise be eligible for the corporate dividends received deduction as ineligible for such treatment, (c) disallow, suspend or otherwise limit the allowance of certain losses or deductions, (d) convert lower-taxed long-term capital gain into higher-taxed short-term capital gain or ordinary income, (e) convert an ordinary loss or a deduction into a capital loss (the deductibility of which is more limited), (f) cause us to recognize income or gain without a corresponding receipt of cash, (g) adversely affect the time as to when a purchase or sale of stock or securities is deemed to occur, (h) adversely alter the characterization of certain complex financial transactions and (i) produce income that will not be qualifying income for purposes of the 90% Income Test. We intend to monitor our transactions and may make certain tax elections to mitigate the effect of these provisions and prevent our disqualification as a RIC.

Gain or loss realized by us from warrants acquired by us as well as any loss attributable to the lapse of such warrants generally will be treated as capital gain or loss. Such capital gain or loss generally will be long-term or short-term, depending on how long we held a particular warrant.

Some of the income and fees that we may recognize will not satisfy the 90% Income Test. In order to ensure that such income and fees do not disqualify us as a RIC for a failure to satisfy the 90% Income Test, we may hold assets that generate such income and provide services that generate such fees indirectly through one or more entities treated as corporations for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Such corporations will be required to pay corporate-level U.S. federal income taxes on their earnings, which ultimately will reduce our return on such income and fees.

DIVIDEND REINVESTMENT PLAN

We have adopted a dividend reinvestment plan that provides for reinvestment of our distributions on behalf of our stockholders, unless a stockholder elects to receive cash as provided below. As a result, if our Board of Directors authorizes, and we declare, a cash distribution, then our stockholders who have not “opted out” of our dividend reinvestment plan will have their cash distributions automatically reinvested in additional shares of our common stock, rather than receiving the cash.

No action is required on the part of a registered stockholder to have such shareholder’s cash distribution reinvested in shares of our common stock. A registered stockholder may elect to receive an entire distribution in cash by notifying American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, the plan administrator and our transfer agent and registrar, in writing so that such notice is received by the plan administrator no later than the record date for distributions to stockholders. The plan administrator will set up an account for shares acquired through the plan for each stockholder who has not elected to receive distributions in cash and hold such shares in non-certificated form. Upon request by a stockholder participating in the plan, received in writing not less than ten days prior to the record date, the plan administrator will, instead of crediting shares to the participant’s account, issue a certificate registered in the participant’s name for the number of whole shares of our common stock and a check for any fractional share.

Those stockholders whose shares are held by a broker or other financial intermediary may receive distributions in cash by notifying their broker or other financial intermediary of their election.

We intend to use primarily newly issued shares to implement the plan, whether our shares are trading at a premium or at a discount to net asset value. However, we reserve the right to purchase shares in the open market in connection with our implementation of the plan. The number of shares to be issued to a stockholder is determined by dividing the total dollar amount of the dividend payable to such stockholder by the market price per share of our common stock at the close of regular trading on The NASDAQ Global Select Market on the dividend payment date. Market price per share on that date will be the closing price for such shares on The NASDAQ Global Select Market or, if no sale is reported for such day, at the average of their reported bid and asked prices. Shares purchased in open market transactions by the plan administrator of the dividend

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reinvestment plan will be allocated to a stockholder based upon the average purchase price, excluding any brokerage charges or other charges, of all shares of common stock purchased with respect to the distribution.

There are no brokerage charges or other charges to stockholders who participate in the plan. The plan administrator’s fees under the plan are paid by us. If a participant elects by written notice to the plan administrator to have the plan administrator sell part or all of the shares held by the plan administrator in the participant’s account and remit the proceeds to the participant, the plan administrator is authorized to deduct a $15.00 transaction fee plus a $0.10 per share brokerage commission from the proceeds.

If your distributions are reinvested, you will be required to pay tax on the distributions in the same manner as if the distributions were received in cash. The taxation of distributions will not be affected by the form in which you receive them.

Participants may terminate their accounts under the plan by notifying the plan administrator via its website at www.amstock.com, by filling out the transaction request form located at bottom of their statement and sending it to the plan administrator at the address set forth below or by calling the plan administrator at 1-866-668-8564.

The plan may be terminated by us upon notice in writing mailed to each participant at least 30 days prior to any record date for the payment of any dividend by us. All correspondence concerning the plan should be directed to, and additional information about the plan may be obtained from, the plan administrator by mail at American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, Attn. Dividend Reinvestment Department, P.O. Box 922, Wall Street Station, New York, NY 10269-0560 or by telephone at 1-866-668-8564.

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Item 1A. Risk Factors

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. In addition to the other information contained in this annual report on Form 10-K, the following information should be carefully considered before making an investment in our securities. The risks set out below are not the only risks we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or not presently deemed material by us might also impair our operations and performance. If any of the following events occur, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. In such case, our net asset value and the trading price of our securities could decline, and you may lose part or all of your investment.

Risks Related to Economic Conditions

Economic recessions or downturns may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations, and could impair the ability of our portfolio companies to repay loans.

Economic recessions or downturns may result in a prolonged period of market illiquidity which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Unfavorable economic conditions also could increase our funding costs, limit our access to the capital markets or result in a decision by lenders not to extend credit to us. These events could limit our investment originations, limit our ability to grow and negatively impact our operating results.

Although the market is not currently experiencing the same levels of disruption as during 2008 to 2009, recently, the debt markets have been experiencing substantial disruption, which may continue substantially into the future. To the extent that recessionary conditions return, the financial results of middle-market companies, like those in which we invest, will likely experience deterioration, which could ultimately lead to difficulty in meeting debt service requirements and an increase in defaults. Additionally, the end markets for certain of our portfolio companies’ products and services would likely experience negative economic trends. The performances of certain of our portfolio companies have been, and may continue to be, negatively impacted by these economic or other conditions, which may ultimately result in our receipt of a reduced level of interest income from our portfolio companies and/or losses or charge offs related to our investments, and, in turn, may adversely affect distributable income. Further, adverse economic conditions may decrease the value of collateral securing some of our loans and the value of our equity investments. As a result, we may need to modify the payment terms of our investments, including changes in payment-in-kind interest provisions and/or cash interest rates. These factors may result in our receipt of a reduced level of interest income from our portfolio companies and/or losses or charge offs related to our investments, and, in turn, may adversely affect distributable income and have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

The capital markets may experience periods of disruption and instability. Such market conditions may materially and adversely affect debt and equity capital markets in the United States, which may have a negative impact on our business and operations.

The U.S. capital markets experienced extreme volatility and disruption over the past several years, leading to recessionary conditions and depressed levels of consumer and commercial spending. Disruptions in the capital markets increased the spread between the yields realized on risk-free and higher risk securities, resulting in illiquidity in parts of the capital markets. While recent indicators suggest improvement in the capital markets, we cannot provide any assurance that these conditions will not worsen. If these conditions continue or worsen, the prolonged period of market illiquidity may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Unfavorable economic conditions also could increase our funding costs, limit our access to the capital markets or result in a decision by lenders not to extend credit to us. These events could limit our investment originations, limit our ability to grow and negatively impact our operating results.

In addition, significant changes or volatility in the capital markets may also have a negative effect on the valuations of our investments. While most of our investments are not publicly traded, applicable accounting standards require us to assume as part of our valuation process that our investments are sold in a principal market to market participants (even if we plan on holding an investment through its maturity). Significant changes in the capital markets may also affect the pace of our investment activity and the potential for liquidity events involving our investments. Thus, the illiquidity of our investments may make it difficult for us

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to sell such investments to access capital if required, and as a result, we could realize significantly less than the value at which we have recorded our investments if we were required to sell them for liquidity purposes. An inability to raise or access capital could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Uncertainty about the financial stability of the United States and other countries could have a significant adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The current worldwide financial market situation, as well as various social and political tensions in the United States and around the world, may continue to contribute to increased market volatility, may have long-term effects on the United States and worldwide financial markets, and may cause further economic uncertainties or deterioration in the United States and worldwide. Since 2010, several European Union (“EU”) countries, including Greece, Ireland, Italy, Spain, and Portugal, have faced budget issues, some of which may have negative long-term effects for the economies of those countries and other EU countries. Growth in the EU’s economy has continued to stagnate, as concerns over deflation and the effects of Russian sanctions on growth were added to longstanding issues with burdensome debt loads and high unemployment. Recently, the European Central Bank began employing more aggressive stimulus measures, with the initiation of full-scale quantitative easing that involves purchase of Eurozone sovereign debt. In addition to EU fiscal policy, the fiscal policy of foreign nations, such as Russia and China, may have a severe impact on the worldwide and United States financial markets. We do not know how long the financial markets will continue to be affected by these events and cannot predict the effects of these or similar events in the future on the United States economy and securities markets or on our investments. We monitor developments and seek to manage our investments in a manner consistent with achieving our investment objective, but there can be no assurance that we will be successful in doing so.

Risks Related to Our Business and Structure

We previously identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting. Our failure to establish and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could result in material misstatements in our financial statements, our failure to meet our reporting obligations and cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, which in turn could cause the trading price of our securities to decline.

We previously identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting relating to the review and oversight of tax-related matters and, as a result of such weakness, our management concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting were not effective as of December 31, 2014.

Although we remediated this material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, any failure to improve our disclosure controls and procedures or internal control over financial reporting to address identified weaknesses in the future, if they were to occur, could prevent us from maintaining accurate accounting records and discovering material accounting errors. Any of these results could adversely affect our business and the value of our common stock.

We are dependent upon our senior management for our future success, and if we are unable to hire and retain qualified personnel or if we lose any member of our senior management team, our ability to achieve our investment objectives could be significantly harmed.

We depend on the members of our senior management as well as other key personnel for the identification, final selection, structuring, closing and monitoring of our investments. These employees have critical industry experience and relationships that we rely on to implement our business plan. Our future success depends on the continued service of our senior management team. The departure of any of the members of our senior management or a significant number of our senior personnel could have a material adverse effect on our ability to achieve our investment objective. As a result, we may not be able to operate our business as we expect, and our ability to compete could be harmed, which could cause our operating results to suffer.

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Additionally, the management agreements governing some of the CLO funds managed by our Asset Manager Affiliates have “key person” provisions that provide certain CLO investors with rights upon the departure of a “key person”, as defined in each agreement. As a result, the departure of a “key person” could trigger a material change in the Asset Manager Affiliate’s role in managing the CLO Funds, and therefore KCAP’s financial benefits from its investments in the Asset Manager Affiliates.

We operate in a highly competitive market for investment opportunities.

A large number of entities compete with us to make the types of investments that we plan to make in prospective portfolio companies. We compete with other BDCs, as well as a number of investment funds, investment banks and other sources of financing, including traditional financial services companies, such as commercial banks and finance companies. Many of our competitors are substantially larger and have considerably greater financial, technical, marketing and other resources than we do. For example, some competitors may have a lower cost of funds and access to funding sources that are not available to us. This may enable some of our competitors to make commercial loans with interest rates that are comparable to or lower than the rates we typically offer. We may lose prospective portfolio investments if we do not match our competitors’ pricing, terms and structure. If we do match our competitors’ pricing, terms or structure, we may experience decreased net interest income. In addition, some of our competitors may have higher risk tolerances or different risk assessments, which could allow them to consider a wider variety of investments, establish more relationships and build their market shares. Furthermore, many of our potential competitors have greater experience operating under, or are not subject to, the regulatory restrictions that the 1940 Act imposes on us as a BDC. As a result of this competition, there can be no assurance that we will be able to identify and take advantage of attractive investment opportunities or that we will be able to fully invest our available capital. If we are not able to compete effectively, our business and financial condition and results of operations will be adversely affected.

If we are unable to source investments effectively, we may be unable to achieve our investment objectives and provide returns to stockholders.

Our ability to achieve our investment objective depends on our senior management team’s ability to identify, evaluate and invest in suitable companies that meet our investment criteria. Accomplishing this result on a cost-effective basis is largely a function of our marketing capabilities, our management of the investment process, our ability to provide efficient services and our access to financing sources on acceptable terms. In addition to monitoring the performance of our existing investments, members of our management team may also be called upon to focus their attention on other aspects of our business, including strategic opportunities available to us and/or the Asset Manager Affiliates from time to time. These demands on their time may distract them or slow the rate of investment. To grow, we need to continue to hire, train, supervise and manage new employees and to implement computer and other systems capable of effectively accommodating our growth. However, we cannot provide assurance that any such employees will contribute to the success of our business or that we will implement such systems effectively. Failure to source investments effectively could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our business model depends to a significant extent upon strong referral relationships, and our inability to maintain or develop these relationships, as well as the failure of these relationships to generate investment opportunities, could adversely affect our business.

We expect that members of our senior management team will maintain their relationships with intermediaries, financial institutions, investment bankers, commercial bankers, financial advisors, attorneys, accountants, consultants and other individuals within their networks, and we will rely to a significant extent upon these relationships to provide us with potential investment opportunities. If our senior management team fails to maintain its existing relationships or develop new relationships with sources of investment opportunities, we will not be able to grow our investment portfolio. In addition, individuals with whom members of our senior management team have relationships are not obligated to provide us with investment opportunities, and, therefore, there is no assurance that such relationships will generate investment opportunities for us.

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We may have difficulty paying distributions required to maintain our RIC status if we recognize income before or without receiving cash equal to such income.

In accordance with the Code, we include in income certain amounts that we have not yet received in cash, such as contracted non-cash PIK interest, which represents contractual interest added to the loan balance and due at the end of the loan term. The increases in loan balances as a result of contracted non-cash PIK arrangements are included in income for the period in which such non-cash PIK interest was received, which is often in advance of receiving cash payment, and are separately identified on our statements of cash flows. We also may be required to include in income certain other amounts that we will not receive in cash. Any warrants that we receive in connection with our debt investments generally are valued as part of the negotiation process with the particular portfolio company. As a result, a portion of the aggregate purchase price for the debt investments and warrants is allocated to the warrants that we receive. This generally results in the associated debt investment having “original issue discount” for tax purposes, which we must recognize as ordinary income as it accrues. This increases the amounts we are required to distribute to maintain our qualification for tax treatment as a RIC. Because such original issue discount income might exceed the amount of cash received in a given year with respect to such investment, we might need to obtain cash from other sources to satisfy such distribution requirements. Other features of the debt instruments that we hold may also cause such instruments to generate original issue discount.

Since, in certain cases, we may recognize income before or without receiving cash representing such income, we may have difficulty meeting the annual distribution requirement necessary to maintain RIC tax treatment under the Code. Accordingly, we may have to sell some of our investments at times and/or at prices we would not consider advantageous, raise additional debt or equity capital or forgo new investment opportunities for this purpose. If we are not able to obtain cash from other sources, we may fail to qualify for RIC tax treatment and thus become subject to corporate-level income tax. For additional discussion regarding the tax implications of a RIC, see “Business — Regulation — Taxation as a Regulated Investment Company.”

Our Asset Manager Affiliates may incur losses as a result of “first loss” agreements that they may enter into from time-to-time in connection with warehousing credit arrangements which may be put in place prior to raising a CLO Fund and pursuant to which they would typically agree to reimburse credit providers for a portion of losses (if any) on warehouse investments.

Our Asset Manager Affiliates have in the past entered into, are currently entered into, and we and our Asset Manager Affiliates may in the future enter into “first loss” agreements in connection with warehouse credit lines established to fund the initial accumulation of loan investments for future CLO Funds that our Asset Manager Affiliates will manage. Under such agreements, our Asset Manager Affiliates generally make a junior investment in a warehouse facility, which serves as a loss buffer for the senior capital provider. Such junior investment may be subject to losses (either in whole or in part) that stem from factors including (i) losses as a result of individual loan or other investments being ineligible for purchase by the CLO Fund (typically due to a payment default on such loan or other investments) when such fund formation is completed or (ii) if the CLO Fund has not been completed before the expiration of the warehouse credit line, the loss (if any, and net of any accumulated interest income) on the resale of such loans funded by the warehouse credit line, or (iii) realized losses from trading activity within the warehouse facility. As a result, our Asset Manager Affiliates may incur losses if loans and debt obligations, if applicable, that had been purchased in the warehouse facility become ineligible for inclusion in the CLO Fund or if a planned CLO Fund does not close.

Any unrealized losses we experience on our loan portfolio may be an indication of future realized losses, which could reduce our income available to make distributions.

As a BDC, we are required to carry our investments at market value or, if no market value is ascertainable, at the fair value as determined in good faith by our Board of Directors pursuant to a valuation methodology approved by our Board of Directors. Decreases in the market values or fair values of our investments will be recorded as unrealized losses. An unrealized loss in our loan portfolio could be an indication of a portfolio company’s inability to meet its repayment obligations with respect to the affected loans. This could result in realized losses in the future and ultimately in reductions of our income available to pay dividends or interest and principal on our securities and could cause you to lose all or part of your investment.

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We may experience fluctuations in our quarterly and annual operating results and credit spreads.

We could experience fluctuations in our quarterly and annual operating results due to a number of factors, some of which are beyond our control, including our ability to make investments in companies that meet our investment criteria, the interest rate payable on the debt securities we acquire (which could stem from the general level of interest rates, credit spreads, or both), the default rate on such securities, prepayment upon the triggering of covenants in our middle market loans as well as our CLO Funds, our level of expenses, variations in and timing of the recognition of realized and unrealized gains or losses, the degree to which we encounter competition in our markets and general economic conditions. As a result of these factors, results for any period should not be relied upon as being indicative of performance in future periods.

We are exposed to risks associated with changes in interest rates and spreads.

Changes in interest rates may have a substantial negative impact on our investments, the value of our securities and our rate of return on invested capital. A reduction in the interest spreads on new investments could also have an adverse impact on our net interest income. An increase in interest rates could decrease the value of any investments we hold which earn fixed interest rates, including mezzanine securities and high-yield bonds, and also could increase our interest expense, thereby decreasing our net income. An increase in interest rates due to an increase in credit spreads, regardless of general interest rate fluctuations, could also negatively impact the value of any investments we hold in our portfolio.

In addition, an increase in interest rates available to investors could make an investment in our securities less attractive than alternative investments, a situation which could reduce the value of our securities. Conversely, a decrease in interest rates may have an adverse impact on our returns by requiring us to seek lower yields on our debt investments and by increasing the risk that our portfolio companies will prepay our debt investments, resulting in the need to redeploy capital at potentially lower rates. A decrease in market interest rates may also adversely impact our returns on idle funds, which would reduce our net investment income.

We borrow money, which magnifies the potential for gain or loss on amounts invested and may increase the risk of investing in us.

Borrowings, also known as leverage, magnify the potential for gain or loss on amounts invested and, therefore, increase the risks associated with investing in us. We have issued senior securities, and in the future may borrow from, or issue additional senior securities (such as preferred or convertible securities or debt securities) to, banks and other lenders and investors. Subject to prevailing market conditions, we intend to grow our portfolio of assets by raising additional capital, including through the prudent use of leverage available to us. Lenders and holders of such senior securities would have fixed dollar claims on our assets that are superior to the claims of our common stockholders. Leverage is generally considered a speculative investment technique. Any increase in our income in excess of interest payable on our outstanding indebtedness would cause our net income to increase more than it would have had we not incurred leverage, while any decrease in our income would cause net income to decline more sharply than it would have had we not incurred leverage. Such a decline could negatively affect our ability to make distributions to our stockholders and service our debt obligations. In addition, our common stockholders will bear the burden of any increase in our expenses as a result of leverage. There can be no assurance that our leveraging strategy will be successful.

Our outstanding indebtedness imposes, and additional debt we may incur in the future will likely impose, financial and operating covenants that restrict our business activities, including limitations that could hinder our ability to finance additional loans and investments or to make the distributions required to maintain our status as a RIC. A failure to add new debt facilities or issue additional debt securities or other evidences of indebtedness in lieu of or in addition to existing indebtedness could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

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Our indebtedness could adversely affect our financial health and our ability to respond to changes in our business.

With certain limited exceptions, we are only allowed to borrow amounts or issue senior securities such that our asset coverage, as defined in the 1940 Act, is at least 200% immediately after such borrowing or issuance. As of December 31, 2015, our asset coverage ratio was 202%. The amount of leverage that we employ in the future will depend on our management’s and our Board of Directors’ assessment of market and other factors at the time of any proposed borrowing. There is no assurance that a leveraging strategy will be successful. As a result of the level of our leverage:

our exposure to risk of loss is greater if we incur debt or issue senior securities to finance investments because a decrease in the value of our investments has a greater negative impact on our equity returns and, therefore, the value of our business if we did not use leverage;
the decrease in our asset coverage ratio resulting from increased leverage and the covenants contained in documents governing our indebtedness (which may impose asset coverage or investment portfolio composition requirements that are more stringent than those imposed by the 1940 Act) limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and industry, as a result of which we could be required to liquidate investments at an inopportune time;
we are required to dedicate a portion of our cash flow to interest payments, limiting the availability of cash for dividends and other purposes; and
our ability to obtain additional financing in the future may be impaired.

We cannot be sure that our leverage will not have a material adverse effect on us. In addition, we cannot be sure that additional financing will be available when required or, if available, will be on terms satisfactory to us. Further, even if we are able to obtain additional financing, we may be required to use some or all of the proceeds thereof to repay our outstanding indebtedness.

Because we intend to continue to distribute substantially all of our income and net realized capital gains to our stockholders, we will need additional capital to finance our growth.

In order to continue to qualify as a RIC, to avoid payment of excise taxes and to minimize or avoid payment of income taxes, we intend to continue to distribute to our stockholders substantially all of our net ordinary income and realized net capital gains except for certain net long-term capital gains (which we may retain, pay applicable income taxes with respect thereto, and elect to treat as deemed distributions to our stockholders). As a BDC, in order to incur new debt, we are generally required to meet a coverage ratio of total assets to total senior securities, which includes all of our borrowings and any preferred stock we may issue in the future, of at least 200%, as measured immediately after issuance of such security. This requirement limits the amount that we may borrow. Because we will continue to need capital to grow our loan and investment portfolio, this limitation may prevent us from incurring debt and require us to issue additional equity at a time when it may be disadvantageous to do so. We cannot assure you that debt and equity financing will be available to us on favorable terms, or at all, and debt financings may be restricted by the terms of such borrowings. Also, as a business development company, we generally are not permitted to issue equity securities priced below net asset value without stockholder approval. If additional funds are not available to us, we could be forced to curtail or cease new lending and investment activities.

We may from time to time expand our business through acquisitions, which could disrupt our business and harm our financial condition.

We may pursue potential acquisitions of, and investments in, businesses complementary to our business and from time to time engage in discussions regarding such possible acquisitions. For example, in February 2012, we completed the acquisition of Trimaran Advisors. Such acquisition and any other acquisitions we may undertake involve a number of risks, including:

failure of the acquired businesses to achieve the results we expect;
substantial cash expenditures;
diversion of capital and management attention from operational matters;

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our inability to retain key personnel of the acquired businesses;
incurrence of debt and contingent liabilities and risks associated with unanticipated events or liabilities; and
the potential disruption and strain on our existing business and resources that could result from our planned growth and continuing integration of our acquisitions.

If we fail to properly evaluate acquisitions or investments, we may not achieve the anticipated benefits of such acquisitions, we may incur costs in excess of what we anticipate, and management resources and attention may be diverted from other necessary or valuable activities. Any acquisition, including the Trimaran Advisors acquisition, may not result in short-term or long-term benefits to us. If we are unable to integrate or successfully manage any business that we acquire, we may not realize anticipated cost savings, improved efficiencies or revenue growth, which may result in reduced profitability or operating losses.

Our Board of Directors may change our investment objective, operating policies and strategies without prior notice or stockholder approval.

Our Board of Directors has the authority to modify or waive certain of our operating policies and strategies without prior notice and without stockholder approval. However, absent stockholder approval, we may not change the nature of our business so as to cease to be, or withdraw our election as, a BDC. We cannot predict the effect any changes to our current operating policies and strategies would have on our business and operating results. Nevertheless, the effects may adversely affect our business and they could negatively impact our ability to pay you dividends and could cause you to lose all or part of your investment in our securities.

Pending legislation may allow us to incur additional leverage.

As a BDC under the 1940 Act, we are generally not permitted to incur indebtedness unless immediately after such borrowing we have an asset coverage for total borrowings of at least 200% (i.e., the amount of debt may not exceed 50% of the value of our assets). Recent legislation introduced in the U.S. House of Representatives, if eventually passed, would modify this section of the 1940 Act and increase the amount of debt that business development companies may incur by modifying the percentage from 200% to 150%, as proposed. As a result, we may be able to incur additional indebtedness in the future and therefore your risk of an investment in our securities may increase.

Our businesses may be adversely affected by litigation and regulatory proceedings.

From time to time, we may be subject to legal actions as well as various regulatory, governmental and law enforcement inquiries, investigations and subpoenas. In any such claims or actions, demands for substantial monetary damages may be asserted against us and may result in financial liability or an adverse effect on our reputation among investors. We may be unable to accurately estimate our exposure to litigation risk when we record balance sheet reserves for probable loss contingencies. As a result, any reserves we establish to cover any settlements or judgments may not be sufficient to cover our actual financial exposure, which may have a material impact on our results of operations or financial condition. In regulatory enforcement matters, claims for disgorgement, the imposition of penalties and the imposition of other remedial sanctions are possible.

Regulations governing our operation as a BDC affect our ability to, and the way in which we, raise additional capital.

Our business requires a substantial amount of additional capital. We may acquire additional capital from the issuance of senior securities or other indebtedness, the issuance of additional shares of our common stock or from securitization transactions. However, we may not be able to raise additional capital in the future on favorable terms or at all. We may issue debt securities or preferred securities, which we refer to collectively as “senior securities,” and we may borrow money from banks or other financial institutions, up to the maximum amount permitted by the 1940 Act. The 1940 Act permits us to issue senior securities or incur indebtedness only in amounts such that our asset coverage, as defined in the 1940 Act, equals at least 200% immediately

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after such issuance or incurrence. With respect to certain types of senior securities, we must make provisions to prohibit any dividend distribution to our stockholders or the repurchase of certain of our securities, unless we meet the applicable asset coverage ratios at the time of the dividend distribution or repurchase. If the value of our assets declines, we may be unable to satisfy the asset coverage test. Furthermore, any amounts that we use to service our indebtedness would not be available for distributions to our common stockholders.

All of the costs of offering and servicing such debt or preferred stock (if issued by us in the future), including interest or preferential dividend payments thereon, will be borne by our common stockholders. The interests of the holders of any debt or preferred stock we may issue will not necessarily be aligned with the interests of our common stockholders. In particular, the rights of holders of our debt or preferred stock to receive interest, dividends or principal repayment will be senior to those of our common stockholders. Also, in the event we issue preferred stock, the holders of such preferred stock will have the ability to elect two members of our board of directors. In addition, we may grant a lender a security interest in a significant portion or all of our assets, even if the total amount we may borrow from such lender is less than the amount of such lender’s security interest in our assets. In no event, however, will any lender to us have any veto power over, or any vote with respect to, any change in our, or approval of any new, investment objective or investment policies or strategies.

We are not generally able to issue and sell our common stock at a price below net asset value per share. We may, however, sell our common stock at a price below the then-current net asset value of our common stock if our board of directors determines that such sale is in the best interests of KCAP and its stockholders, and our stockholders approve giving us the authority to do so. Although we currently do not have such authorization, we previously sought and received such authorization from our stockholders in the past and may seek such authorization in the future. In any such case, the price at which our securities are to be issued and sold may not be less than a price which, in the determination of our board of directors, closely approximates the market value of such securities (less any distributing commission or discount). We are also generally prohibited under the 1940 Act from issuing securities convertible into voting securities without obtaining the approval of our existing stockholders. In addition to issuing securities to raise capital as described above; we may securitize a portion of the loans generate cash for funding new investments. If we are unable to successfully securitize our loan portfolio our ability to grow our business and fully execute our business strategy and our earnings (if any) may be adversely affected. Moreover, even successful securitization of our loan portfolio might expose us to losses, as the residual loans in which we do not sell interests tend to be those that are riskier and more apt to generate losses.

Changes in the laws or regulations governing our business and the business of our Asset Manager Affiliates, or changes in the interpretations thereof, and any failure by us or our Asset Manager Affiliates to comply with these laws or regulations, could negatively affect the profitability of our operations.

Changes in the laws or regulations or the interpretations of the laws and regulations that govern BDCs, Registered Investment Advisers (such as our Asset Manager Affiliates), RICs or non-depository commercial lenders could significantly affect our operations and our cost of doing business. We are subject to federal, state and local laws and regulations as well as the rules of the stock exchange on which our securities are listed, and are subject to judicial and administrative decisions that affect our operations, including our loan originations, maximum interest rates, fees and other charges, disclosures to portfolio companies, the terms of secured transactions, collection and foreclosure procedures and other trade practices. The various regulatory bodies, including the SEC and the NASDAQ Global Select Market, that administer these laws and regulations have issued a significant number of new and increasingly complex requirements and regulations over the course of the last several years and continue to develop additional regulations.

In addition, as registered investment advisers, the Asset Manager Affiliates are subject to new and existing regulations, regulatory risks, costs and expenses associated with operating as registered investment advisers that may limit their ability to operate, structure or expand their businesses in the future. If these laws, regulations or decisions change, or if we expand our business into jurisdictions that have adopted more stringent requirements than those in which we currently conduct business, we may have to incur significant expenses in order to comply or we might have to restrict our operations. In addition, if we do not comply with applicable laws, regulations and decisions, we may lose licenses needed for the conduct of our business

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and be subject to civil fines and criminal penalties, any of which could have a material adverse effect upon our business, results of operations or financial condition.

Moreover, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) has increased and may significantly increase the regulation of the financial services industry. The Dodd-Frank Act contains a broad set of provisions designed to govern the practices and oversight of financial institutions and other participants in the financial markets. One such provision, Section 619 of the Dodd-Frank Act, commonly referred to as the Volcker Rule, contains certain prohibitions and restrictions on the ability of a “banking entity” — which includes insured depository institutions, bank holding companies, foreign banking entities regulated by the Federal Reserve Board and their respective affiliates — and nonbank financial company supervised by the Federal Reserve to engage in proprietary trading and have certain interests in, or relationships with certain private funds (“covered funds”). Under the final regulations implementing the Volcker Rule, which were adopted in December 2013, many CLOs will be covered funds if they invest, or are permitted to invest, in assets other than loans, certain cash equivalents and interest rate or currency hedges. As a result, many banking entities, including many U.S. and non-U.S. broker-dealers with affiliated banks, may be unable to invest in, or in some cases to make a market in, the securities of CLOs in which we have invested, which may reduce liquidity in these securities and have a material adverse effect on their valuation. Moreover, the Volcker Rule regulations may affect the market for CLOs such that our Asset Manager Affiliates may be unable to establish, or to obtain warehouse funding for, new CLOs that would be covered funds. If our Asset Manager Affiliates establish CLOs that are structured not to be covered funds and thus do not permit investments in customary assets such as corporate bonds, asset-backed securities or synthetic investments, and we invest in such CLOs, the ability of our Asset Manager Affiliates to manage such CLOs will be constrained by those limitations, which could materially adversely affect any investments we make in such CLOs.

In October 2014, the SEC, the FDIC, the Federal Reserve and certain other prudential banking regulators adopted final rules that will mandate risk retention for securitizations, including CLOs, beginning on December 24, 2016. Under the final risk-retentions rules, our Asset Manager Affiliates (or a majority-owned affiliate of such entities, including the Company) may be required to hold interests equal to 5% of the fair value of any CLO they sponsor (unless the CLO invests only in certain qualifying loans, which we do not expect to be the case) and would be prohibited from selling or hedging those interests in accordance with the limitations on such sales or hedges set forth in the final rule. Our Asset Manager Affiliates (or a majority-owned affiliate of such entities, including the Company) will need to have the requisite capital to hold such interests as a condition to their ability to sponsor new CLOs, and the restrictions on hedging such interests may create greater risk with respect to those interests.

Our Asset Manager Affiliates’ (or a majority owned affiliate’s) investments in such CLOs, or their inability to invest in such CLOs (and thus inability to sponsor them) could each have a material adverse effect upon our business, results of operations or financial condition.

In April 2010, the SEC proposed revised rules for asset-backed securities offerings (“Regulation AB II”) that, if adopted, would substantially change the disclosure, reporting and offering process for public and private offerings of asset-backed securities, including CLOs. The proposed rules, if adopted, would have required significant additional disclosures and would have altered the safe-harbor standards for the private placement of asset-backed securities to impose informational requirements similar to those that would apply to registered public offerings of such securities. The application of such informational requirements to CLOs, which have not historically been publicly registered, was unclear. On August 27, 2014, the SEC adopted a set of Regulation AB II final rules that was limited to asset-backed securities that were publicly registered. These rules impose changes to the offering process for publicly registered asset-backed securities and require disclosure of loan-level data for a subset of classes addressed in the proposed rules, but do not at this time extend to privately offered CLOs. However, the SEC has indicated that many aspects of the rule proposals, including the expansion of loan-level or grouped data disclosure requirements to additional asset classes and the possible application of the rules to private offerings of securities, remain under active consideration. The timing of the adoption of any additional final rules, their application to privately offered securities in general and to CLOs in particular, the cost of compliance with such rules, and whether compliance would compromise proprietary methods or strategies of our Asset Manager Affiliates, is currently unclear.

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Other financial reform regulations, including regulations requiring clearing and margining of swap transactions, which may affect our ability to enter into hedging transactions; changes in the definition and regulation of commodity pool operators and commodity trading advisors, which could subject our Asset Manager Affiliates to additional regulations; leveraged lending guidance that may affect the ways in which banking institutions originate the loans in which we and our affiliates invest; heightened regulatory capital and liquidity requirements for banks that may affect our ability to borrow on reasonable terms; and non-US regulations of financial market participants that may overlap, expand upon or be inconsistent with US regulations may all have material adverse effects on our business.

If we do not invest a sufficient portion of our assets in Qualifying Assets, we could be precluded from investing according to our current business strategy.

As a BDC, we may not acquire any assets other than Qualifying Assets for purposes of the 1940 Act unless, at the time of and after giving effect to such acquisition, at least 70% of our total assets are Qualifying Assets. See “Item 1: Business — Regulation”.

We believe that most of the senior loans and mezzanine investments that we acquire constitute “qualifying assets.” However, investments in the securities of CLO Funds generally do not constitute “qualifying assets,” and we may invest in other assets that are not “qualifying assets.” If we do not invest a sufficient portion of our assets in “qualifying assets,” we may be precluded from investing in what we believe are attractive investments, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. These restrictions could also prevent us from making investments in the equity securities of CLO Funds, which could limit our Asset Manager Affiliates’ ability to organize new CLO Funds. Similarly, these rules could prevent us from making follow-on investments in existing portfolio companies (which could result in the dilution of our position).

Our ability to enter into transactions with our affiliates is restricted.

We are prohibited under the 1940 Act from participating in certain transactions with certain of our affiliates without the prior approval of the members of our independent directors and, in some cases, the SEC. Any person that owns, directly or indirectly, 5% or more of our outstanding voting securities is our affiliate for purposes of the 1940 Act and we are generally prohibited from buying or selling any securities (other than our securities) from or to such affiliate, absent the prior approval of our independent directors. The 1940 Act also prohibits certain “joint” transactions with certain of our affiliates, which could include investments in the same portfolio company (whether at the same or different times), without prior approval of our independent directors and, in some cases, the SEC. If a person acquires more than 25% of our voting securities, we will be prohibited from buying or selling any security (other than any security of which we are the issuer) from or to such person or certain of that person’s affiliates, or entering into prohibited joint transactions with such person, absent the prior approval of the SEC. Similar restrictions limit our ability to transact business with our officers or directors or their affiliates. As a result of these restrictions, we may be prohibited from buying or selling any security (other than any security of which we are the issuer) from or to any portfolio company of a private equity fund managed by our investment adviser without the prior approval of the SEC, which may limit the scope of investment opportunities that would otherwise be available to us.

We have received certain exemptive relief from the SEC to permit us to co-invest, subject to the conditions of the relief granted by the SEC, with other funds managed by our Asset Manager Affiliates in a manner consistent with our investment objectives, positions, policies, strategies and restrictions as well as regulatory requirements and other pertinent factors. The conditions of such exemptive relief may limit our ability or the ability of our Asset Manager Affiliates, each a registered investment adviser, to operate, structure or expand their business in the future.

A failure on our part to maintain our status as a BDC would significantly reduce our operating flexibility.

If we fail to maintain our status as a BDC, we might be regulated as a closed-end investment company that is required to register under the Investment Company Act, which would subject us to additional regulatory restrictions and significantly decrease our operating flexibility. In addition, any such failure could cause an event of default under our outstanding indebtedness, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

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We will be subject to corporate-level U.S. federal income taxes if we are unable to qualify as a RIC under Subchapter M of the Code.

To maintain RIC tax treatment under the Code, we must meet the following annual distribution, income source and asset diversification requirements:

The annual distribution requirement for a RIC will be satisfied if we distribute to our stockholders on an annual basis at least 90% of our net ordinary income and realized net short-term capital gains in excess of realized net long-term capital losses, if any. Because we use debt financing, we are subject to certain asset coverage ratio requirements under the 1940 Act and are (and may in the future become) subject to certain financial covenants under loan and credit agreements that could, under certain circumstances, restrict us from making distributions necessary to satisfy the distribution requirement. If we are unable to obtain cash from other sources, we could fail to qualify for RIC tax treatment and thus become subject to corporate-level U.S. federal income taxes.
The source income requirement will be satisfied if we obtain at least 90% of our income for each year from dividends, interest, gains from the sale of stock or securities or similar sources.
The asset diversification requirement will be satisfied if we meet certain asset diversification requirements at the end of each quarter of our taxable year. To satisfy this requirement, at least 50% of the value of our assets must consist of cash, cash equivalents, U.S. Government securities, securities of other RICs, and other acceptable securities; and no more than 25% of the value of our assets can be invested in the securities, other than U.S. government securities or securities of other RICs, of one issuer, of two or more issuers that are controlled, as determined under applicable Code rules, by us and that are engaged in the same or similar or related trades or businesses or of certain “qualified publicly traded partnerships.” If we do not satisfy the diversification requirements as of the end of any quarter, we will not lose our status as RIC provided that (i) we satisfied the requirements in a prior quarter and (ii) our failure to satisfy the requirements in the current quarter is not due in whole or in part to an acquisition of any security or other property.

Failure to meet these requirements may result in our having to dispose of certain investments quickly in order to prevent the loss of RIC status. Because most of our investments will be in private companies, and therefore will be illiquid, any such dispositions could be made at disadvantageous prices and could result in substantial losses. Moreover, if we fail to maintain RIC tax treatment for any reason and are subject to corporate-level U.S. federal income taxes, the resulting taxes could substantially reduce our net assets, the amount of income available for distribution and the amount of our distributions. Such a failure would have a material adverse effect on us and on our stockholders.

Risks Associated with Our Information Technology Systems

We rely on various information technology systems to manage our operations. Information technology systems are subject to numerous risks including unanticipated operating problems, system failures, rapid technological change, failure of the systems that operate as anticipated, reliance on third party computer hardware, software and IT service providers, computer viruses, telecommunication failures, data breaches, denial of service attacks, spamming, phishing attacks, computer hackers and other similar disruptions, any of which could materially adversely impact our consolidated financial condition and results of operations. Additional risks include, but are not limited to, the following:

Disruptions in current systems or difficulties in integrating new systems.

We regularly maintain, upgrade, enhance or replace our information technology systems to support our business strategies and provide business continuity. Replacing legacy systems with successor systems, making changes to existing systems or acquiring new systems with new functionality have inherent risks including disruptions, delays, or difficulties that may impair the effectiveness of our information technology systems.

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If we are unable to maintain the availability of our electronic data systems and safeguard the security of our data, our ability to conduct business may be compromised, which impair our liquidity, disrupt our business, damage our reputation and cause losses.

Cybersecurity refers to the combination of technologies, processes, and procedures established to protect information technology systems and data from unauthorized access, attack, or damage. We are subject to cybersecurity risks. Information cyber security risks have significantly increased in recent years and, while we have not experienced any material losses relating to cyber attacks or other information security breaches, we could suffer such losses in the future. Our computer systems, software and networks may be vulnerable to unauthorized access, computer viruses or other malicious code and other events that could have a security impact. If one or more of such events occur, this potentially could jeopardize confidential and other information, including nonpublic personal information and sensitive business data, processed and stored in, and transmitted through, our computer systems and networks, or otherwise cause interruptions or malfunctions in our operations or the operations of our customers or counterparties, which could result in significant losses or reputational damage. This could result in significant losses, reputational damage, litigation, regulatory fines or penalties, or otherwise adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. Privacy and information security laws and regulation changes, and compliance with those changes, may result in cost increases due to system changes and the development of new administrative processes. In addition, we may be required to expend significant additional resources to modify our protective measures and to investigate and remediate vulnerabilities or other exposures arising from operational and security risks. We currently do not maintain insurance coverage relating to cybersecurity risks, and we may be required to expend significant additional resources to modify our protective measures or to investigate and remediate vulnerabilities or other exposures, and we may be subject to litigation and financial losses that are not fully insured.

Third parties with which we do business may also be sources of cybersecurity or other technological risks. We outsource certain functions and these relationships allow for the storage and processing of our information, as well as customer, counterparty, employee and borrower information. While we engage in actions to reduce our exposure resulting from outsourcing, ongoing threats may result in unauthorized access, loss, exposure or destruction of data, or other cybersecurity incidents, with increased costs and other consequences, including those described above.

Risks Related to Our Debt Securitization Financing Transactions

We are subject to certain risks as a result of our indirect interests in the subordinated notes and membership interests of KCAP Senior Funding I, LLC.

On June 18, 2013, KCAP Senior Funding I, LLC, a specialty finance subsidiary of the Company, was capitalized through the issuance of $140 million of notes (the “KCAP Senior Funding I Notes”). In December 2014, KCAP Senior Funding I, LLC, issued an additional $56 million of notes. The KCAP Senior Funding I Notes are backed by a diversified portfolio of bank loans.

Under the terms of the master loan sale agreement governing the debt securitization financing transaction, (1) we sold and/or contributed to KCAP Senior Funding I Holdings, LLC (“Holdings”) all of our ownership interest in our portfolio loans and participations for the purchase price and other consideration set forth in the master loan sale agreement and (2) Holdings, in turn, sold and/or contributed to KCAP Senior Funding I, LLC (the “Issuer”) all of its ownership interest in such portfolio loans and participations for the purchase price and the consideration set forth in the master loan sale agreement. Following these transfers, the Issuer, and not Holdings or us, held all of the ownership interest in such portfolio loans and participations. As a result of the debt securitization financing transaction, we hold indirectly through Holdings all of the subordinated notes and membership interests of the Issuer. As a result, we consolidate the financial statements of Holdings and the Issuer in our consolidated financial statements. Because Holdings and the Issuer are disregarded as entities separate from its owner for U.S. federal income tax purposes, each of the sale or contribution of portfolio loans by us to Holdings, and the sale of portfolio loans by Holdings to the Issuer, did not constitute a taxable event for U.S. federal income tax purposes. If the U.S. Internal Revenue Service were to take a contrary position, there could be a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.

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The subordinated notes and membership interests of the Issuer are subordinated obligations of the Issuer.

The subordinated notes of the Issuer are the junior class of notes issued by the Issuer, are subordinated in priority of payment to the secured notes issued by the Issuer and are subject to certain payment restrictions set forth in the indenture governing the notes of the Issuer. Therefore, Holdings only receives cash distributions on the subordinated notes if the Issuer has made all cash interest payments on the secured notes it has issued, and we only receive cash distributions in respect of our indirect ownership of the Issuer to the extent that Holdings receives any cash distributions in respect of its direct ownership of the Issuer. The subordinated notes of the Issuer are also unsecured and rank behind all of the secured creditors, known or unknown, of the Issuer, including the holders of the secured notes it has issued. Consequently, to the extent that the value of either the Issuer’s portfolio of loan investments has been reduced as a result of conditions in the credit markets, or as a result of defaulted loans or individual fund assets, the value of the subordinated notes of such securitization issuer at their redemption could be reduced. Accordingly, our investment in the Issuer may be subject to complete loss.

The membership interests in the Issuer represent all of the residual economic interest in the Issuer. As such, the holder of the membership interests of the Issuer is the residual claimant on distributions, if any, made by the Issuer after holders of all classes of notes issued by the Issuer have been paid in full on each payment date or upon maturity of such notes under the debt securitization financing transaction documents.

If an event of default has occurred and acceleration occurs in accordance with the terms of the indenture governing the notes of the Issuer, the secured notes of the Issuer then outstanding will be paid in full before any further payment or distribution on the subordinated notes of the Issuer. In addition, if an event of default occurs, holders of a majority of the most senior class of secured notes then outstanding will be entitled to determine the remedies to be exercised under the indenture, subject to the terms of the indenture. For example, upon the occurrence of an event of default with respect to the notes issued by the Issuer, the trustee or holders of a majority of the most senior class of secured notes of the Issuer then outstanding may declare the principal, together with any accrued interest, of all the notes of such class and any junior classes to be immediately due and payable. This would have the effect of accelerating the principal on such notes, triggering a repayment obligation on the part of the Issuer. If at such time the portfolio loans of the Issuer were not performing well, the Issuer may not have sufficient proceeds available to enable the trustee under the indenture to repay the obligations of holders of the subordinated notes of the Securitization Issuer, or to pay a dividend to holders of the membership interests of the Issuer.

Remedies pursued by the holders of the secured notes of the Issuer could be adverse to the interests of the holders of the subordinated notes of the Issuer, and the holders of such secured notes will have no obligation to consider any possible adverse effect on such other interests. Thus, any remedies pursued by the holders of the secured notes of the Issuer may not be in our best interests and we may not receive payments or distributions upon an acceleration of the secured notes. Any failure of the Issuer to make distributions on the subordinated notes we hold, directly or indirectly, whether as a result of an event of default or otherwise, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows and may result in an inability of us to make distributions sufficient to allow our qualification as a RIC.

The Issuer may fail to meet certain coverage tests.

Under the documents governing the debt securitization financing transaction, there are two coverage tests applicable to the secured notes. The first such test compares the amount of interest received on the portfolio loans held by the Issuer to the amount of interest payable in respect of the secured notes of the Issuer. To meet this test at any time, interest received on the portfolio loans must equal at least 127% to 150% (based upon a graduated scale for the most senior class of secured notes then outstanding as provided for in the indenture) of the interest payable in respect of the secured notes of the Issuer. The second such test compares the principal amount of the portfolio loans held by the Issuer to the aggregate outstanding principal amount of the secured notes of the Issuer. To meet this test at any time, the aggregate principal amount of the portfolio loans held by the Issuer must equal at least 124% to 147% (based upon a graduated scale for the most senior class of secured notes then outstanding as provided for in the indenture) of the outstanding principal amount of the secured notes of the Issuer. If either coverage test is not satisfied, interest and principal received by the Issuer are diverted on the following payment date to pay the most senior class or classes of secured notes to

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the extent necessary to cause all coverage tests to be satisfied on a pro forma basis after giving effect to all payments made in respect of the notes, which, with respect to the payment of any principal amount of the secured notes, we refer to as a mandatory redemption. If any coverage test with respect to the secured notes is not met, proceeds from the portfolio of loan investments that otherwise would have been distributed to the Issuer and the holders of its subordinated notes will instead be used to redeem first the secured notes of the Issuer, to the extent necessary to satisfy the applicable coverage tests.

We may not receive cash on our equity interests in the Issuer.

We receive cash from the Issuer only to the extent that we or Holdings, as applicable, receives payments on the subordinated notes or membership interests of the Issuer. The Issuer may only make payments on such securities to the extent permitted by the payment priority provisions of the indenture governing the notes, which generally provides that principal payments on the subordinated notes may not be made on any payment date unless all amounts owing under the secured notes issued under such indenture are paid in full. In addition, if the Issuer does not meet the coverage tests set forth in the documents governing the debt securitization financing transaction, cash would be diverted from the subordinated notes of the Issuer to first pay the secured notes of the Issuer in amounts sufficient to cause such tests to be satisfied. In the event that we fail to directly or indirectly receive cash from the Issuer, we could be unable to make distributions in amounts sufficient to maintain our status as a RIC, or at all. We also could be forced to sell investments in portfolio companies at less than their fair value in order to continue making such distributions. However, the indenture places significant restrictions on the Issuer’s ability to sell investments. As a result, there may be times or circumstances during which the Issuer is unable to sell investments or take other actions that might be in our best interests.

A significant portion of the assets reflected on our financial statements are held by the Issuer and are subject to security interests under the senior secured notes issued by the Issuer and if it defaults on its obligations under the senior secured notes we and the Issuer may suffer adverse consequences, including foreclosure on those assets.

In connection with our debt securitization financing transaction, we transferred all of our interests in certain portfolio loans to the Issuer. In doing so, we transferred any right we previously had to the payments made on such portfolio loans in exchange for 100% of the residual interests in the Issuer. As a result, we face a heightened risk of loss due to the impact of leverage utilized by the Issuer, which would have the effect of magnifying the impact on us of a loss on any portfolio loan held by the Issuer. In addition, while we serve as the collateral manager for the Issuer, which provides us with the authority to enforce payment obligations and loan covenants of the portfolio loans that we transferred to the Issuer, we are required to exercise such authority for the interests of the Issuer, rather than for our own interests alone.

The structure of the debt securitization financing transaction is intended to prevent, in the event of our bankruptcy or the bankruptcy of Holdings, the consolidation for purposes of such bankruptcy proceedings of the Issuer with our operations or those of Holdings. If the true sale of these assets were not respected in the event of our insolvency, a trustee or debtor-in-possession might reclaim the assets of the Issuer for our estate. However, in doing so, we would become directly liable for all of the indebtedness then outstanding under the debt securitization financing transaction, which would equal the full amount of debt of the Issuer reflected on our consolidated balance sheet. In addition, we cannot assure that the recovery in the event we were consolidated with the Issuer for purposes of any bankruptcy proceeding would exceed the amount to which we would otherwise be entitled as a direct or indirect.

As of December 31, 2015, $183.8 million of the assets that are reflected on our financial statements were held by the Issuer and pledged as collateral under the senior secured notes issued by the Issuer. If the Issuer defaults on its obligations under the senior secured notes, the holders of the senior secured notes may have the right to foreclose upon and sell, or otherwise transfer, the collateral subject to their security interests. In such event, we and the Issuer may be forced to sell our investments to raise funds to repay the Issuer’s outstanding borrowings in order to avoid foreclosure and these forced sales may be at times and at prices we and the Issuer would not consider advantageous. Moreover, such deleveraging of our company could significantly impair our ability to effectively operate our business in the manner in which we have historically operated. As

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a result, we could be forced to curtail or cease new investment activities and lower or eliminate the dividends that we have historically paid to our stockholders.

In addition, in certain limited circumstances in the event of default, if the holders of the senior secured notes exercise their right to sell the assets pledged by the Issuer, such sales may be completed at distressed sale prices, thereby diminishing or potentially eliminating the amount of cash available to the Issuer and us after repayment of the amounts outstanding under the senior secured notes.

Risks Related to Our Investments

Our investments may be risky, and you could lose all or part of your investment.

We invest primarily in senior secured term loans, mezzanine debt, selected equity investments issued by middle market companies, CLO Funds and our Asset Manager Affiliates. The investments in our Debt Securities Portfolio are all or predominantly below investment grade, may be highly leveraged, and therefore have speculative characteristics with respect to the issuer’s capacity to pay interest and repay principal. Defaults by portfolio companies may harm our operating results.

Secured Loans.  When we extend secured term loans, we generally take a security interest (either as a first lien position or as a second lien position) in the available assets of these portfolio companies, including the equity interests of their subsidiaries, which we expect to assist in mitigating the risk that we will not be repaid. However, there is a risk that the collateral securing our loans may decrease in value over time, may be difficult to sell in a timely manner, may be difficult to appraise and may fluctuate in value based upon the success of the business and market conditions, including as a result of the inability of the portfolio company to raise additional capital, and, in some circumstances, our lien could be subordinated to claims of other creditors. In addition, deterioration in a portfolio company’s financial condition and prospects, including its inability to raise additional capital, may be accompanied by deterioration in the value of the collateral for the loan. Consequently, the fact that a loan is secured does not guarantee that we will receive principal and interest payments according to the loan’s terms, or at all, or that we will be able to collect on the loan should we be forced to exercise our remedies.

Mezzanine Debt.  Our mezzanine debt investments generally are subordinated to senior loans and generally are unsecured. This may result in an above average amount of risk and volatility or loss of principal.

These investments may entail additional risks that could adversely affect our investment returns. To the extent interest payments associated with such debt are deferred, such debt is subject to greater fluctuations in value based on changes in interest rates and such debt could subject us to phantom income. Since we generally do not receive any cash prior to maturity of the debt, the investment is of greater risk.

Equity Investments.  We have made and expect to make selected equity investments in the middle market companies. In addition, when we invest in senior secured loans or mezzanine debt, we may acquire warrants in the equity of the portfolio company. Our goal is ultimately to dispose of such equity interests and realize gains upon our disposition of such interests. However, the equity interests we receive may not appreciate in value and, in fact, may decline in value. Accordingly, we may not be able to realize gains from our equity interests, and any gains that we do realize on the disposition of any equity interests may not be sufficient to offset any other losses we experience.

Risks Associated with Middle Market Companies.  Investments in middle market companies also involve a number of significant risks, including:

limited financial resources and inability to meet their obligations, which may be accompanied by a deterioration in the value of any collateral and a reduction in the likelihood of our realizing the value of any guarantees we may have obtained in connection with our investment;
shorter operating histories, narrower product lines and smaller market shares than larger businesses, which tend to render them more vulnerable to competitors’ actions and market conditions, as well as general economic downturns;

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dependence on management talents and efforts of a small group of persons; therefore, the death, disability, resignation or termination of one or more of these persons could have a material adverse impact on our portfolio company and, in turn, on us;
less predictable operating results, being parties to litigation from time to time, engaging in rapidly changing businesses with products subject to a substantial risk of obsolescence and requiring substantial additional capital expenditures to support their operations, finance expansion or maintain their competitive position;
difficulty accessing the capital markets to meet future capital needs; and
generally less publicly available information about their businesses, operations and financial condition.

CLO Fund Investments.  Investments in CLO Funds also involve a number of significant risks, including:

CLOs typically are comprised of a portfolio of senior secured loans; payments on CLO investments are and will be payable solely from the cash-flows from such senior secured loans;
CLO investments are exposed to leveraged credit risk;
CLO Funds are highly leveraged;
there is the potential for interruption and deferral of cash-flow from CLO investments;
interest rates paid by corporate borrowers are subject to volatility;
the inability of a CLO collateral manager to reinvest the proceeds of the prepayment of senior secured loans may adversely affect us;
our CLO investments are subject to prepayments and calls, increasing re-investment risk;
we have limited control of the administration and amendment of senior secured loans owned by the CLOs in which we invest;
we have limited control of the administration and amendment of any CLO in which we invest;
senior secured loans of CLOs may be sold and replaced resulting in a loss to us;
our financial results may be affected adversely if one or more of our significant equity or junior debt investments in a CLO vehicle defaults on its payment obligations or fails to perform as we expect; and
non-investment grade debt involves a greater risk of default and higher price volatility than investment grade debt.

Asset Manager Affiliates.  We may not receive all or a portion of the cash distributions we expect to continue to receive from our Asset Manager Affiliates, including incentive fees.

We expect to receive cash distributions from our Asset Manager Affiliates. However, the existing asset management agreements pursuant to which our Asset Manager Affiliates receive fee income from the CLO Funds for which they serve as managers may be terminated for “cause” by the holders of a majority of the most senior class of securities issued by such CLO Funds and the holders of a majority of the subordinated securities issued by such CLO Funds. “Cause” is defined in the asset management agreements to include a material breach by our Asset Manager Affiliates of the indenture governing the applicable CLO Fund, breaches by our Asset Manager Affiliates of certain specified provisions of the indenture (including, in some cases, a “key person” provision), material breaches of representations or warranties made by our Asset Manager Affiliates, bankruptcy or insolvency of our Asset Manager Affiliates, fraud or criminal activity on the part of our Asset Manager Affiliates or an event of default under the indenture governing the CLO Funds. We expect that future asset management agreements will contain comparable provisions.

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Further, a significant portion of the asset management fees payable to our Asset Manager Affiliates under the asset management agreements are subordinated to the prior payments of interest on the senior securities issued by the CLO Funds. If the asset management agreements are terminated, or the CLO Funds do not generate enough income (due to run-off of existing funds and de-leveraging), or otherwise have insufficient residual cash flow due to diversion of cash as a result of the failure by the CLO Funds to satisfy certain restrictive covenants contained in their indenture agreements to pay the subordinated management fees, the Asset Manager Affiliates will not receive the fee income that they expect to continue to receive which would reduce cash distributions available to us, and in turn reduce our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.

Our portfolio investments for which there is no readily available market, including our investment in our Asset Manager Affiliates and our investments in CLO Funds, are recorded at fair value as determined in good faith by our Board of Directors. As a result, there is uncertainty as to the value of these investments.

Our investments consist primarily of securities issued by privately-held companies, the fair value of which is not readily determinable. In addition, we are not permitted to maintain a general reserve for anticipated loan losses. Instead, we are required by the 1940 Act to specifically value each investment and record an unrealized gain or loss for any asset that we believe has increased or decreased in value. We value these securities at fair value as determined in good faith by our Board of Directors pursuant to a valuation methodology approved by our Board of Directors. These valuations are initially prepared by our management and reviewed by our Valuation Committee, which uses its best judgment in arriving at the fair value of these securities. However, the Board of Directors retains ultimate authority to determine the appropriate valuation for each investment.

The Company has engaged an independent valuation firm to provide third party valuation consulting services to the Company’s Board of Directors. Each quarter, the independent valuation firm performs third party valuations on the Company’s material investments in illiquid securities, such that they are reviewed at least once during a trailing 12 month period. These third party valuation estimates are one of the relevant data points in the Board of Director’s determination of fair value. The Board of Directors intends to continue to engage an independent valuation firm in the future to provide certain valuation services, including the review of certain portfolio assets, as part of the quarterly and annual year-end valuation process. In addition to such third-party input, the types of factors that may be considered in valuing our investments include the nature and realizable value of any collateral, the portfolio company’s ability to make payments and its earnings, the markets in which the portfolio company does business, comparison to publicly-traded companies, discounted cash flow and other relevant factors. Our investment in our Asset Manager Affiliates is carried at fair value, which is determined after taking into consideration a percentage of assets under management and a discounted cash flow model incorporating different levels of discount rates depending on the hierarchy of fees earned (including the likelihood of realization of senior, subordinate and incentive fees) and prospective modeled performance. Such valuation includes an analysis of comparable asset management companies. Because such valuations, and particularly valuations of private investments and private companies, are inherently uncertain and may be based on estimates, our determinations of fair value may differ materially from the values that would be assessed if a ready market for these securities existed. Our net asset value could be adversely affected if our determinations regarding the fair value of our illiquid investments were materially higher than the values that we ultimately realize upon the disposal of such securities.

We are a non-diversified investment company within the meaning of the 1940 Act, and therefore we may invest a significant portion of our assets in a relatively small number of issuers, which subjects us to a risk of significant loss if any of these issuers defaults on its obligations under any of its debt instruments or as a result of a downturn in the particular industry.

We are classified as a non-diversified investment company within the meaning of the 1940 Act, and therefore we may invest a significant portion of our assets in a relatively small number of issuers in a limited number of industries. As of December 31, 2015, our largest investment, our 100% equity interest in our Asset Manager Affiliates, equaled approximately 14.0% of the fair value of our total investments. Beyond the asset diversification requirements associated with our qualification as a RIC, we do not have fixed guidelines for diversification, and while we are not targeting any specific industries, relatively few industries may become

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significantly represented among our investments. To the extent that we assume large positions in the securities of a small number of issuers, our net asset value may fluctuate to a greater extent than that of a diversified investment company as a result of changes in the financial condition or the market’s assessment of the issuer, changes in fair value over time or a downturn in any particular industry. We may also be more susceptible to any single economic or regulatory occurrence than a diversified investment company.

Defaults by our portfolio companies could harm our operating results.

A portfolio company’s failure to satisfy financial or operating covenants imposed by us or other debt holders could lead to defaults and, potentially, acceleration of the time when the loans are due and foreclosure on its secured assets. Such events could trigger cross-defaults under other agreements and jeopardize a portfolio company’s ability to meet its obligations under the debt that we hold and the value of any equity securities we own. We may incur expenses to the extent necessary to seek recovery upon default or to negotiate new terms with a defaulting portfolio company.

When we are a debt or minority equity investor in a portfolio company, which generally is the case, we may not be in a position to control the entity, and its management may make decisions that could decrease the value of our investment.

Most of our investments are either debt or minority equity investments in our portfolio companies. Therefore, we are subject to the risk that a portfolio company may make business decisions with which we disagree, and the stockholders and management of such company may take risks or otherwise act in ways that do not serve our interests. As a result, a portfolio company may make decisions that could decrease the value of our portfolio holdings. In addition, we generally are not in a position to control any portfolio company by investing in its debt securities.

We may have limited access to information about privately held companies in which we invest.

We invest primarily in privately-held companies. Generally, little public information exists about these companies, and we are required to rely on the ability of our investment professionals to obtain adequate information to evaluate the potential returns from investing in these companies. These companies and their financial information are not subject to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and other rules that govern public companies. If we are unable to uncover all material information about these companies, we may not make a fully informed investment decision, and we may lose money on our investment.

Prepayments of our debt investments by our portfolio companies could negatively impact our operating results.

We are subject to the risk that the investments we make in our portfolio companies may be repaid prior to maturity. When this occurs, we generally reinvest these proceeds in temporary investments, pending their future investment in new portfolio companies. These temporary investments typically have substantially lower yields than the debt being prepaid and we could experience significant delays in reinvesting these amounts. Any future investment in a new portfolio company may also be at lower yields than the debt that was repaid. Consequently, our results of operations could be materially adversely affected if one or more of our portfolio companies elects to prepay amounts owed to us. Additionally, prepayments could negatively impact our return on equity, which could result in a decline in the market price of our common stock.

We may be unable to invest the net proceeds raised from offerings and repayments from investments on acceptable terms, which would harm our financial condition and operating results.

Until we identify new investment opportunities, we intend to either invest the net proceeds of future offerings and repayments from investments in interest-bearing deposits or other short-term instruments or use the net proceeds from such offerings to reduce then-outstanding obligations under our credit facility, if any. We cannot assure you that we will be able to find enough appropriate investments that meet our investment criteria or that any investment we complete using the proceeds from an offering will produce a sufficient return.

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Our portfolio companies may incur debt that ranks equal with, or senior to, our investments in such companies.

We invest primarily in debt securities issued by our portfolio companies. In some cases portfolio companies are permitted to have other debt that ranks equal with, or senior to, the debt securities in which we invest. By their terms, such debt instruments may provide that the holders thereof are entitled to receive payment of interest or principal on or before the dates on which we are entitled to receive payments in respect of the debt securities in which we invest. Also, in the event of insolvency, liquidation, dissolution, reorganization or bankruptcy of a portfolio company, holders of debt instruments ranking senior to our investment in that portfolio company would typically be entitled to receive payment in full before we receive any distribution in respect of our investment. After repaying such senior creditors, such portfolio company may not have any remaining assets to use for repaying its obligation to us. In the case of debt ranking equal with debt securities in which we invest, we would have to share on an equal basis any distributions with other creditors holding such debt in the event of an insolvency, liquidation, dissolution, reorganization or bankruptcy of a portfolio company.

Second priority liens on collateral securing loans that we make to our portfolio companies may be subject to control by senior creditors with first priority liens. If there is a default, the value of the collateral may not be sufficient to repay in full both the first priority creditors and us.

Certain loans that we make are secured by a second priority security interest in the same collateral pledged by a portfolio company to secure senior debt owed by the portfolio company to commercial banks or other traditional lenders. Often the senior lender has procured covenants from the portfolio company prohibiting the incurrence of additional secured debt, without the senior lender’s consent. Prior to, and as a condition of, permitting the portfolio company to borrow money from us secured by the same collateral pledged to the senior lender, the senior lender will require assurances that it will control the disposition of any collateral in the event of bankruptcy or other default. In many such cases, the senior lender will require us to enter into an “intercreditor agreement” prior to permitting the portfolio company to borrow from us. Typically, the intercreditor agreements we are requested to execute expressly subordinate our debt instruments to those held by the senior lender and further provide that the senior lender shall control: (1) the commencement of foreclosure or other proceedings to liquidate and collect on the collateral; (2) the nature, timing and conduct of foreclosure or other collection proceedings; (3) the amendment of any collateral document; (4) the release of the security interests in respect of any collateral; and (5) the waiver of defaults under any security agreement. Because of the control we may cede to senior lenders under intercreditor agreements we may enter, we may be unable to realize the proceeds of any collateral securing some of our loans.

There may be circumstances where our debt investments could be subordinated to claims of other creditors or we could be subject to lender liability claims.

Even though we may have structured certain of our investments as senior loans, if one of our portfolio companies were to go bankrupt, depending on the facts and circumstances, including the size of our investment and the extent to which we actually provided managerial assistance to that portfolio company, a bankruptcy court might recharacterize our debt investment and subordinate all or a portion of our claim to that of other creditors. In addition, lenders can be subject to lender liability claims for actions taken by them where they become too involved in the borrower’s business or exercise control over the borrower. It is possible that we could become subject to a lender’s liability claim, including as a result of actions taken in rendering significant managerial assistance.

Our investments in equity securities involve a substantial degree of risk.

We may purchase common stock and other equity securities, including warrants. Although equity securities have historically generated higher average total returns than fixed-income securities over the long term, equity securities have also experienced significantly more volatility in those returns. The equity securities we acquire may fail to appreciate and may decline in value or become worthless, and our ability to recover our investment depends on our portfolio company’s success. Investments in equity securities involve a number of significant risks, including the risk of further dilution as a result of additional issuances, inability to

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access additional capital and failure to pay current distributions. Investments in preferred securities involve special risks, such as the risk of deferred distributions, credit risk, illiquidity and limited voting rights.

The lack of liquidity in our investments may adversely affect our business.

We may invest in securities issued by private companies. These securities may be subject to legal and other restrictions on resale or otherwise be less liquid than publicly-traded securities. The illiquidity of these investments may make it difficult for us to sell these investments when desired. In addition, if we are required to liquidate all or a portion of our portfolio quickly, we may realize significantly less than the value at which we had previously recorded these investments. Our investments are usually subject to contractual or legal restrictions on resale or are otherwise illiquid because there is usually no established trading market for such investments. The illiquidity of most of our investments may make it difficult for us to dispose of them at a favorable price, and, as a result, we may suffer losses.

We may not receive any return on our investment in the CLO Funds in which we have invested and the Asset Manager Affiliates may be unable to raise additional CLO Funds.

As of December 31, 2015, we had $55.9 million at fair value invested in the subordinated securities, preferred shares, or other securities issued by the CLO Funds managed by our Asset Manager Affiliates and certain other third party asset managers. Subject to market conditions and legal requirements applicable to us under the 1940 Act, we expect to continue to acquire subordinated securities in the future in CLO Funds managed by our Asset Manager Affiliates and/or third party managers. Subordinated securities are the most junior class of securities issued by the CLO Funds and are subordinated in priority of payment to every other class of securities issued by these CLO Funds. Therefore, they only receive cash distributions if the CLO Funds have made all cash interest payments to all other debt securities issued by the CLO Fund. The subordinated securities are also unsecured and rank behind all of the secured creditors, known or unknown, of the CLO Fund, including the holders of the senior securities issued by the CLO Fund. Consequently, to the extent that the value of a CLO Fund’s loan investments has been reduced as a result of conditions in the credit markets, or as a result of defaulted loans or individual fund assets, the value of the subordinated securities at their redemption could be reduced. Additionally, the Asset Manager Affiliates may not be able to continue to raise new CLO Funds due to prevailing CLO market conditions, regulatory requirements or other factors.

If our Asset Manager Affiliates do not meet certain risk retention requirements, they may not be able to sponsor and manage new CLOs, which would negatively impact our results of operations and financial conditions.

In October 2014, the SEC, the FDIC, the Federal Reserve and certain other prudential banking regulators finalized regulations that mandate risk retention for securitizations. The rules will be effective for CLOs beginning December 24, 2016. Under the final rules, our Asset Manager Affiliates (directly or through any of their majority-controlled affiliates, including the Company) may be required to hold interests equal to 5% of the credit risk of the assets of any CLO sponsored by our Asset Manager Affiliates (unless the CLO invests only in certain qualifying loans which we do not expect will be the case) and would be prohibited from selling or hedging those interests in accordance with the limitations on such sales or hedges set forth in the final rule. Thus, our Asset Manager Affiliates (or any of their majority-controlled affiliates, including the Company, permitted to retain risk on their behalf) will need to have the requisite capital to hold such interests as a condition to their ability to sponsor new CLOs, and the restrictions on selling or hedging such interests may create greater risk with respect to those interests, including, to the extent that we retain risk in the CLOs managed by the Asset Manager Affiliates on their behalf, our ability to sell CLO Fund Securities when advantageous for us to do so. These mandatory investments in such CLOs, or the inability to invest in such CLOs (and thus inability to sponsor them) could each have a material adverse effect upon our business, results of operations or financial condition of the Asset Manager Affiliates, which would, in turn, negatively impact our business results of operations and financial condition. In addition, the application of the risk retention rules to CLOs may have broader effects on the CLO and loan markets in general, potentially resulting in fewer or less desirable investment opportunities for the Company, our Asset Manager Affiliates, and any CLOs that our Asset Manager Affiliates sponsor or in which we otherwise invest.

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On August 27, 2014, the SEC finalized revised rules for asset-backed securities offerings (“Regulation AB II”). Although the proposed rules would have substantially changed the disclosure, reporting and offering process for public and private offerings of asset-backed securities, including CLOs, the final rules only apply to public offerings of asset-backed securities and thus will not affect CLOs at this time. However, the SEC has indicated that it is continuing to consider the proposals that were not included in the final regulations, and may issue further rules in that regard. The timing and likelihood of the adoption of additional final rules, their application to privately offered securities in general and to CLOs in particular, the cost of compliance with such rules, and whether compliance would compromise proprietary methods or strategies of our Asset Manager Affiliates, is currently unclear.

Risks Related to Our Common Stock

We may not be able to pay distributions to our stockholders, our distributions may not grow over time, and a portion of distributions paid to our stockholders may be a return of capital.

We intend to make distributions on a quarterly basis to our stockholders out of assets legally available for distribution. We may not be able to achieve investment results that will allow us to make a specified level of cash distributions or year-to-year increases in cash distributions. Our ability to pay distributions might be adversely affected by, among other things, the impact of one or more of the risk factors described herein. In addition, the inability to satisfy the asset coverage test applicable to us as a BDC could limit our ability to pay distributions. In addition, due to the asset coverage test applicable to us as a BDC and a covenant that we agreed to in connection with the issuance of the 7.375% Notes Due 2019, we are limited in our ability to make distributions in certain circumstances. In this regard, we agreed in connection with our issuance of the 7.375% Notes Due 2019 that for the period of time during which the 7.375% Notes Due 2019 are outstanding, we will not violate (regardless of whether we are subject to) Section 18(a)(1)(B) as modified by Section 61(a)(1) of the 1940 Act. These provisions generally prohibit us from declaring any cash dividend or distribution upon our common stock, or purchasing any such common stock if our asset coverage, as defined in the 1940 Act, is below 200% at the time of the declaration of the dividend or distribution or the purchase and after deducting the amount of such dividend, distribution or purchase. Further, if we invest a greater amount of assets in equity securities that do not pay current dividends, it could reduce the amount available for distribution.

All distributions will be paid at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend on our earnings and those of the Asset Manager Affiliates, our financial condition, maintenance of our RIC status, compliance with applicable BDC regulations and such other factors as our Board of Directors may deem relevant from time to time. We cannot assure you that we will pay distributions to our stockholders in the future.

When we make quarterly distributions, we will be required to determine the extent to which such distributions are paid out of current or accumulated earnings, recognized capital gains or capital. To the extent there is a return of capital, investors will be required to reduce their basis in our stock for U.S. federal income tax purposes, which may result in higher tax liability when the shares are sold, even if they have not increased in value or have lost value. Our distributions have over the last several years included a significant return of capital component. For more information about our distributions over the last several years that have included a return of capital component, see Note 8 — “Distributable Taxable Income” to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report.

Investing in shares of our common stock may involve an above average degree of risk.

The investments we make in accordance with our investment objective may result in a higher amount of risk, volatility or loss of principal than alternative investment options. Our investments in portfolio companies may be highly speculative, and therefore, an investment in our common stock may not be suitable for investors with lower risk tolerance.

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Shares of closed-end investment companies, including BDCs, frequently trade at a discount to their net asset value, and we cannot assure you that the market price of our common stock will not decline following any offering of our common stock.

We cannot predict the price at which our common stock will trade. Shares of closed-end investment companies frequently trade at a discount to their net asset value and our stock may also be discounted in the market. This characteristic of closed-end investment companies is separate and distinct from the risk that our net asset value per share may decline. We cannot predict whether shares of our common stock will trade above, at or below our net asset value. The risk of loss associated with this characteristic of closed-end investment companies may be greater for investors expecting to sell shares of common stock soon after the purchase of such shares of common stock. In addition, if our common stock trades below its net asset value, we will generally not be able to issue additional shares of our common stock at its market price without first obtaining the approval of our stockholders and our independent directors.

Our share price may be volatile and may fluctuate substantially.

The market price and liquidity of the market for shares of our common stock may be significantly affected by numerous factors, some of which are beyond our control and may not be directly related to our operating performance. These factors include:

price and volume fluctuations in the overall stock market from time to time;
significant volatility in the market price and trading volume of securities of BDCs or other companies in our sector, which are not necessarily related to the operating performance of these companies or to us;
our inability to deploy or invest our capital;
fluctuations in interest rates;
any shortfall in revenue or net income or any increase in losses from levels expected by investors or securities analysts;
operating performance of companies comparable to us;
changes in regulatory policies or tax rules, particularly with respect to RICs or BDCs;
inability to maintain our qualification as a RIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes;
changes in earnings or variations in operating results;
changes in the value of our portfolio;
general economic conditions and trends; and
departure of key personnel.

Certain provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law and our certificate of incorporation and bylaws could deter takeover attempts and have an adverse impact on the price of our common stock.

The Delaware General Corporation Law, our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws contain provisions that may have the effect of discouraging a third party from making an acquisition proposal for us. These anti-takeover provisions may inhibit a change in control in circumstances that could give the holders of our common stock the opportunity to realize a premium over the market price of our common stock.

Our stockholders may experience dilution upon the conversion of our Convertible Notes.

Our 8.75% convertible notes due 2016 (the “Convertible Notes”) are convertible into shares of our common stock at any time prior to the end of business on the business day preceding the maturity date. Upon conversion, we will satisfy holder with shares of our common stock or cash, at our option. Our stockholders may experience dilution in their ownership percentage of common stock upon our issuance of common stock on any conversion of the Convertible Notes and any dividends paid on our common stock will also be paid on shares issued on any conversion, which may result in a reduction of the per share dividend.

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Risks Related to Our 7.375% Notes Due 2019 and our Convertible Notes

Our 7.375% Notes Due 2019 and Convertible Notes are unsecured and therefore are effectively subordinated to any secured indebtedness we have currently incurred or may incur in the future.

Our 7.375% Notes Due 2019 and Convertible Notes are not secured by any of our assets or any of the assets of our subsidiaries or the Asset Manager Affiliates. As a result, the 7.375% Notes Due 2019 and Convertible Notes are effectively subordinated to any secured indebtedness we or they have currently incurred and may incur in the future (or any indebtedness that is initially unsecured to which we subsequently grant security) to the extent of the value of the assets securing such indebtedness. In any liquidation, dissolution, bankruptcy or other similar proceeding, the holders of any of our existing or future secured indebtedness and the secured indebtedness of our subsidiaries and the Asset Manager Affiliates may assert rights against the assets pledged to secure that indebtedness in order to receive full payment of their indebtedness before the assets may be used to pay other creditors, including the holders of the 7.375% Notes Due 2019 or Convertible Notes.

The 7.375% Notes Due 2019 are structurally subordinated to the indebtedness and other liabilities of our subsidiaries and portfolio companies with respect to which we hold equity investments, including the Asset Manager Affiliates.

The 7.375% Notes Due 2019 are obligations exclusively of KCAP Financial, Inc., and not of any of our subsidiaries or the Asset Manager Affiliates. None of our subsidiaries or the Asset Manager Affiliates are guarantors of the 7.375% Notes Due 2019, and the 7.375% Notes Due 2019 will not be required to be guaranteed by any subsidiary or asset management firm we may acquire or create in the future. Any assets of our subsidiaries and the Asset Manager Affiliates will not be directly available to satisfy the claims of our creditors, including holders of the 7.375% Notes Due 2019. Except to the extent we are a creditor with recognized claims against our subsidiaries, all claims of creditors of our subsidiaries will have priority over our equity interests in such entities (and therefore the claims of our creditors, including holders of the 7.375% Notes Due 2019) with respect to the assets of such entities. Even if we are recognized as a creditor of one or more of these entities, our claims would still be effectively subordinated to any security interests in the assets of any such entity and to any indebtedness or other liabilities of any such entity senior to our claims. Consequently, the 7.375% Notes Due 2019 are structurally subordinated to all indebtedness and other liabilities of any of our subsidiaries and portfolio companies with respect to which we hold equity investments, including the Asset Manager Affiliates and any subsidiaries of the Asset Manager Affiliates that we may in the future acquire or establish. These entities may incur substantial indebtedness in the future, all of which would be structurally senior to the 7.375% Notes Due 2019.

The indenture under which the 7.375% Notes Due 2019 are issued contains limited protection for holders of the 7.375% Notes Due 2019.

The indenture under which the 7.375% Notes Due 2019 are issued offers limited protection to holders of the 7.375% Notes Due 2019. The terms of the indenture and the 7.375% Notes Due 2019 do not restrict our or any of our subsidiaries or the Asset Manager Affiliates’ ability to engage in, or otherwise be a party to, a variety of corporate transactions, circumstances or events that could have a material adverse impact on your investment in the 7.375% Notes Due 2019. In particular, the terms of the indenture and the 7.375% Notes Due 2019 do not place any restrictions on our or our subsidiaries or the Asset Manager Affiliates’ ability to:

issue securities or otherwise incur additional indebtedness or other obligations, including (1) any indebtedness or other obligations that would be equal in right of payment to the 7.375% Notes Due 2019, (2) any indebtedness or other obligations that would be secured and therefore rank effectively senior in right of payment to the 7.375% Notes Due 2019 to the extent of the values of the assets securing such debt, (3) indebtedness of ours that is guaranteed by one or more of our subsidiaries or the Asset Manager Affiliates and which therefore is structurally senior to the 7.375% Notes Due 2019 and (4) securities, indebtedness or obligations issued or incurred by our subsidiaries or the Asset Manager Affiliates that would be senior to our equity interests in those entities and therefore rank structurally senior to the 7.375% Notes Due 2019 with respect to the assets of our subsidiaries and the Asset Manager Affiliates, in each case other than an incurrence of indebtedness or other

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obligation that would cause a violation of Section 18(a)(1)(A) as modified by Section 61(a)(1) of the 1940 Act or any successor provisions. These provisions generally prohibit us from making additional borrowings, including through the issuance of additional debt or the sale of additional debt securities, unless our asset coverage, as defined in the 1940 Act, equals at least 200% after such borrowings;
pay dividends on, or purchase or redeem or make any payments in respect of, capital stock or other securities ranking junior in right of payment to the 7.375% Notes Due 2019, including subordinated indebtedness, in each case other than dividends, purchases, redemptions or payments that would cause a violation of Section 18(a)(1)(B) as modified by Section 61(a)(1) of the 1940 Act or any successor provisions. These provisions generally prohibit us from declaring any cash dividend or distribution upon any class of our capital stock, or purchasing any such capital stock if our asset coverage, as defined in the 1940 Act, is below 200% at the time of the declaration of the dividend or distribution or the purchase and after deducting the amount of such dividend, distribution or purchase;
sell assets (other than certain limited restrictions on our ability to consolidate, merge or sell all or substantially all of our assets);
enter into transactions with affiliates;
create liens (including liens on the shares of our subsidiaries) or enter into sale and leaseback transactions;
make investments; or
create restrictions on the payment of dividends or other amounts to us from our subsidiaries.

In addition, the indenture does not require us to offer to purchase the 7.375% Notes Due 2019 in connection with a change of control or any other event.

Furthermore, the terms of the indenture and the 7.375% Notes Due 2019 do not protect holders of the 7.375% Notes Due 2019 in the event that we experience changes (including significant adverse changes) in our financial condition, results of operations or credit ratings, if any, as they do not require that we adhere to any financial tests or ratios or specified levels of net worth, revenues, income, cash flow, or liquidity other than as described above. Any changes to the 200% asset coverage ratio in the 1940 Act could affect the 7.375% Notes Due 2019. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors — Risks Related to Our Business and Structure —  Pending legislation may allow us to incur additional leverage.”

Our ability to recapitalize, incur additional debt and take a number of other actions that are not limited by the terms of the 7.375% Notes Due 2019 may have important consequences for you as a holder of the 7.375% Notes Due 2019, including making it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations with respect to the 7.375% Notes Due 2019 or negatively affecting the trading value of the 7.375% Notes Due 2019.

Other debt we issue or incur in the future could contain more protections for its holders than the indenture and the 7.375% Notes Due 2019, including additional covenants and events of default. The issuance or incurrence of any such debt with incremental protections could affect the market for and trading levels and prices of the 7.375% Notes Due 2019.

Even though the 7.375% Notes Due 2019 are listed on the NYSE, an active trading market for the 7.375% Notes Due 2019 may not develop, or if it does develop, it will be sustained, which could limit your ability to sell the 7.375% Notes Due 2019 or affect the market price of the 7.375% Notes Due 2019.

We cannot provide any assurances that an active trading market will develop for the 7.375% Notes Due 2019 or that, if it does develop, it will be sustained or that you will be able to sell your 7.375% Notes Due 2019. The 7.375% Notes Due 2019 may trade at a discount from the price paid for the notes depending on prevailing interest rates, the market for similar securities, our credit ratings, if any, general economic conditions, our financial condition, performance and prospects and other factors.

Accordingly, we cannot assure you that a liquid trading market will develop for the 7.375% Notes Due 2019, or that, if an active trading market for the 7.375% Notes Due 2019 does develop, it will be sustained,

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that you will be able to sell your 7.375% Notes Due 2019 at a particular time or that the price you receive when you sell will be favorable. To the extent an active trading market does not develop the liquidity and trading price for the 7.375% Notes Due 2019 may be harmed. Accordingly, you may be required to bear the financial risk of an investment in the 7.375% Notes Due 2019 for an indefinite period of time.

If we default on our obligations to pay our other indebtedness, we may not be able to make payments on the 7.375% Notes Due 2019 or Convertible Notes.

Any default under the agreements governing our indebtedness, including a default under the 7.375% Notes due 2019 or Convertible Notes and other indebtedness to which we may be a party that is not waived by the required lenders, and the remedies sought by the holders of such indebtedness could make us unable to pay principal, premium, if any, and interest on the Convertible Notes and substantially decrease the market value of the Convertible Notes. If we are unable to generate sufficient cash flow and are otherwise unable to obtain funds necessary to meet required payments of principal, premium, if any, and interest on our indebtedness, or if we otherwise fail to comply with the various covenants, including financial and operating covenants, in the instruments governing our indebtedness, we could be in default under the terms of the agreements governing such indebtedness. In the event of such default, the holders of such indebtedness could elect to declare all the funds borrowed thereunder to be due and payable, together with accrued and unpaid interest, the lender any debt we may incur in the future could elect to terminate its commitment, cease making further loans and institute foreclosure proceedings against our assets, and we could be forced into bankruptcy or liquidation. If our operating performance declines, we may in the future need to seek to obtain waivers from under any other debt that we may incur in the future to avoid being in default. If we breach our covenants under any debt and seek a waiver, we may not be able to obtain a waiver from the required lenders. If this occurs, we would be in default under any debt, the lender could exercise its rights as described above, and we could be forced into bankruptcy or liquidation. If we are unable to repay debt, lenders having secured obligations could proceed against the collateral securing the debt. Because the 7.375% Notes Due 2019 and Convertible Notes have, and any future debt we issue will likely have, customary cross-default provisions, if the indebtedness under the 7.375% Notes Due 2019 or Convertible Notes or any other debt we may issue is accelerated, we may be unable to repay or finance the amounts due.

We may not have, or have the ability to raise, the funds necessary to repurchase our Convertible Notes upon a fundamental change, and our debt may contain limitations on our ability to deliver shares of our common stock upon conversion or pay cash upon repurchase of our convertible notes.

Holders of our Convertible Notes will have the right to require us to repurchase their notes upon the occurrence of certain significant corporate events involving us, including if our common stock ceases to trade on any national securities exchange or we consolidate or merge into another entity in certain circumstances, at a repurchase price equal to 100% of their principal amount, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any. We refer to such a corporate event as a “fundamental change.” However, we may not have enough available cash or be able to obtain financing at the time we are required to make repurchases of convertible notes surrendered therefor. In addition, our ability to repurchase our convertible notes or deliver shares of our common stock upon conversions of the convertible notes may be limited by law, by regulatory authority or by agreements governing our indebtedness. Our failure to repurchase the notes at a time when the repurchase is required by the indenture relating to the convertible notes or to deliver any shares of our common stock deliverable on future conversions of the convertible notes as required by the indenture would constitute a default under the indenture. A default under the indenture or the occurrence of a fundamental change itself could also lead to a default under agreements governing our indebtedness. If the repayment of the related indebtedness were to be accelerated after any applicable notice or grace periods, we may not have sufficient funds to repay the indebtedness and repurchase our convertible notes.

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Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

Item 2. Properties

We do not own any real estate or other real property. Our wholly-owned portfolio company, Katonah Debt Advisors, is the lessee for our principal headquarters at 295 Madison Avenue, 6th Floor, New York, New York 10017. We have entered into an Overhead Allocation Agreement with Katonah Debt Advisors which provides for the sharing of the expenses under the lease agreement.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

The Company is not currently a party to any material legal proceedings.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

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Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

PRICE RANGE OF COMMON STOCK

Our common stock is quoted on The NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “KCAP.” We completed our initial public offering on December 11, 2006 at an initial public offering (“IPO”) price of $15.00 per share. Prior to such date there was no public market for our common stock.

The following table sets forth the range of high and low closing sales prices per share of our common stock as reported on The NASDAQ Global Select Market in respect of the periods indicated. The stock quotations are interdealer quotations and do not include markups, markdowns or commissions and may not necessarily represent actual transactions.

Quarterly Stock Prices for 2015 and 2014

       
  During the Quarter   At Quarter End
     High   Low   Close   NAV(1)
2015:
                                   
Fourth quarter   $ 5.43     $ 3.78     $ 4.07     $ 5.82  
Third quarter   $ 5.72     $ 4.40     $ 4.51     $ 6.33  
Second quarter   $ 6.40     $ 5.56     $ 5.98     $ 6.96  
First quarter   $ 7.61     $ 6.54     $ 6.73     $ 7.16  
2014:
                                   
Fourth quarter   $ 8.59     $ 6.63     $ 6.82     $ 6.94  
Third quarter   $ 8.54     $ 7.87     $ 8.31     $ 7.67  
Second quarter   $ 8.72     $ 7.84     $ 8.49     $ 7.67  
First quarter   $ 8.66     $ 7.83     $ 8.66     $ 7.62  

(1) Net Asset Value (“NAV”) per share is determined as of the last day in the relevant quarter and therefore may not reflect the NAV per share on the date of the high and low closing sales prices.

We began paying quarterly distributions in our first full quarter of operations following our IPO. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and Note 8 — “Distributable Tax Income” from our Notes to the Financial Statements included herein. The table below provides information relating to distributions we paid in respect of the periods indicated.

Stockholder Distributions

       
  Distributions   Declaration
Date
  Record Date   Pay Date
2015:
                                   
Fourth quarter   $ 0.15       12/16/2015       1/6/2016 (1)      1/28/2016  
Third quarter     0.21       9/22/2015       10/14/2015       10/27/2015  
Second quarter     0.21       6/23/2015       7/6/2015       7/27/2015  
First quarter     0.21       3/24/2015       4/6/2015       4/27/2015  
Total declared for 2015   $ 0.78                    
2014:
                                   
Fourth quarter   $ 0.25       12/17/2014       12/29/2014       1/29/2015  
Third quarter     0.25       9/19/2014       10/14/2014       10/29/2014  
Second quarter     0.25       6/20/2014       7/3/2014       7/25/2014  
First quarter     0.25       3/21/2014       4/4/2014       4/25/2014  
Total declared for 2014   $ 1.00                    

(1) Since the record date of this distribution is in 2016, it is a 2016 tax event.

The determination of the tax attributes of our distributions is made annually, based upon our taxable income for the full year and distributions paid for the full year. Ordinary dividend distributions from a RIC do

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not qualify for the tax rate applicable to “qualified dividend income” from domestic corporations and qualified foreign corporations, except to the extent that the RIC received the income in the form of qualifying dividends from domestic corporations and qualified foreign corporations. For further information about the tax attributes, see Note 8 “Distributable Taxable Income” of our notes to the financial statements, which can be found elsewhere in this Annual Report.

Performance Graph

The following graph compares the return on our common stock with that of the Russell 2000 Index and the Nasdaq Financial 100 Index (IXF), for the period December 11, 2006 (the date of our initial public offering) to December 31, 2015. The graph assumes that, on December 11, 2006, a person invested $100 in each of our common stock, the Russell 2000 Index, and the IFX. The graph measures total shareholder return, which takes into account both changes in stock price and dividends. It assumes that dividends are reinvested.

Shareholder Return Performance Graph
Cumulative Total Return Since Initial Public Offering(1)
(Through December 31, 2015)

[GRAPHIC MISSING]

(1) Total return includes reinvestment of distributions through December 31, 2015. The IXF is an index of diversified financial sector stocks and, as such, the Company believes that it is representative of our industry. The Russell 2000 is a broad based equity market index that tracks companies with a market capitalization that the Company believes are comparable to it.

HOLDERS

As of December 31, 2015, there were 48 shareholders of record of our common stock and approximately 16,243 beneficial shareholders of the Company.

SALES OF UNREGISTERED SECURITIES

During the year ended December 31, 2015, we issued 175,922 shares of common stock pursuant to a dividend reinvestment plan. This issuance was not subject to the registration requirements of the Securities Act. See Note 9 “Stockholders’ Equity,” of our Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included herein.

DIVIDEND POLICY

We intend to continue to make quarterly distributions to our stockholders. Our quarterly distributions, if any, will be determined by our Board of Directors. To maintain our RIC status, we must timely distribute an

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amount equal to at least 90% of our tax basis ordinary income and realized net short-term capital gains in excess of realized net long-term capital losses, if any, reduced by deductible expenses, out of the assets legally available for distribution, for each year. To avoid certain excise taxes imposed on RICs, we are generally required to distribute during each calendar year an amount at least equal to the sum of (1) 98% of our ordinary income for the calendar year, (2) 98.2% of our capital gains in excess of capital losses for the one-year period ending on October 31 of the calendar year and (3) any ordinary income and net capital gains for preceding years that were not distributed during such years and on which we paid no corporate tax. If this requirement is not met, we will be required to pay a nondeductible excise tax equal to 4% of the amount by which the required distribution amount exceeds the actual distribution for the year. The taxable income on which an excise tax is paid is generally carried forward and distributed to stockholders in the next tax year. Depending on the level of taxable income earned in a tax year, we may choose to carry forward taxable income in excess of current year distributions into the next tax year and pay a 4% excise tax on such income, to the extent required.

We cannot assure you that we will achieve results that will permit the payment of any cash distributions and, because we issued public senior securities, we are prohibited from making distributions if doing so causes us to fail to maintain the asset coverage ratio stipulated by the 1940 Act. Similarly, we may be prohibited from making distributions by the terms of any of our other borrowings.

We maintain an “opt out” dividend reinvestment plan for our common stockholders. As a result, if we declare distributions, then stockholders’ cash distributions will be automatically reinvested in additional shares of our common stock, unless they specifically “opt out” of the dividend reinvestment plan so as to receive cash.

EQUITY COMPENSATION PLAN INFORMATION

The following table summarizes certain information regarding the Amended and Restated 2006 Equity Incentive Plan (the “Equity Incentive Plan”) and the Amended and Restated Non-Employee Director Plan (the “Non-Employee Director Plan”) as of December 31, 2015:

     
Plan Category   Number of
Securities to Be
Issued Upon
Exercise of
Outstanding
Options, Warrants
and Rights
  Weighted Average
Exercise Price of
Outstanding
Options, Warrants
and Rights
  Number of Securities
Remaining Available
for Future
Issuance Under
Equity Compensation
Plans (Excluding
Securities Reflected in
Column (a))
     (a)   (b)   (c)
Equity Compensation Plans Approved by Security Holders(1)     50,000     $ 7.72       891,713 (2)(3) 
Equity Compensation Plans Not Approved by Security Holders                  
Total     50,000       7.72       891,713  

(1) The Company’s Equity Incentive Plan and Non-Employee Director Plan.
(2) Subject to the following additional limitations: The aggregate number of shares of restricted stock that may be issued under the Equity Incentive Plan may not exceed 10% of the outstanding shares on June 13, 2008, the effective date of the Equity Incentive Plan, plus 10% of the number of shares issued or delivered by the Company (other than pursuant to compensation plans) during the term of the Equity Incentive Plan. No one person may be granted more than 25% of the shares of restricted stock reserved for issuance under the Equity Incentive Plan. In addition, the amount of voting securities that would result from the exercise of all of the Company’s outstanding warrants, options and rights, together with any restricted stock issued by the Company, at the time of issuance may not exceed 25% of the outstanding voting securities of the Company, except that if the amount of voting securities that would result from the exercise of all the Company’s outstanding warrants, options and rights issued to the Company’s directors, officers and employees, together with any restricted stock issued by the Company, would exceed 15% of the outstanding voting securities of the Company, the total amount of voting securities that would result from the exercise of all outstanding warrants, options and rights, together with

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any restricted stock issued by the Company, at the time of issuance may not exceed 20% of the outstanding voting securities of the Company.
(3) The shares issuable under the Company’s Equity Incentive Plan may be issued in the form of options, restricted stock or other stock-based awards. The shares issuable under the Company’s Non-Employee Director Plan may currently be issued in the form of restricted stock.
Item 6. Selected Financial Data

The following selected consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with Part II, Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, and Part II, Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The following selected financial and other data for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012 and 2011 is derived from the audited consolidated financial statements for such years, included in Part II, Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

KCAP FINANCIAL, INC.
SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

         
  Year Ended
December 31,
2015
  Year Ended
December 31,
2014
  Year Ended
December 31,
2013
  Year Ended
December 31,
2012
  Year Ended
December 31,
2011
Income Statement Data:
                             
Interest and related portfolio income:
                             
Interest and Dividends   $ 39,811,558     $ 34,802,690     $ 33,144,195     $ 29,821,676     $ 19,024,979  
Fees and other income     366,859       934,871       305,376       304,882       86,057  
Dividends from Asset Manager Affiliates     5,348,554       5,467,914       5,735,045       1,214,998       1,060,000  
Other Income                             2,000,000  
Total interest and related portfolio
income
    45,526,971       41,205,475       39,184,616       31,341,556       22,171,036  
Expenses:
                             
Interest and amortization of debt issuance costs     11,727,880       11,538,179       10,116,271       6,976,018       4,588,482  
Compensation     3,843,799       4,951,745       4,630,481       3,172,814       3,907,900  
Other     5,772,502       4,594,983       4,563,749       4,344,611       3,490,939  
Total operating expenses     21,344,181       21,084,907       19,310,501       14,493,443       11,987,321  
Net Investment Income     24,182,790       20,120,568       19,874,115       16,848,113       10,183,715  
Realized and unrealized gains (losses) on investments:
                             
Net realized gains (losses)     (6,647,478 )      (11,132,491 )      (12,627,314 )      (3,232,974 )      (18,476,608 ) 
Net change in unrealized gains (losses)     (36,169,870 )      6,045,517       9,976,171       12,510,641       15,942,437  
Total net gains (losses)     (42,817,348 )      (5,086,974 )      (2,651,143 )      9,277,667       (2,534,171 ) 
Net increase (decrease) in net assets resulting from operations   $ (18,634,558 )    $ 15,033,594     $ 17,222,972     $ 26,125,779     $ 7,649,544  
Per Share:
                             
Earnings per common share – basic   $ (0.50 )    $ 0.44     $ 0.53     $ 1.00     $ 0.33  
Earnings per common share – diluted   $ (0.50 )    $ 0.43     $ 0.53     $ 0.95     $ 0.33  
Net investment income per share – basic   $ 0.65     $ 0.59     $ 0.62     $ 0.65     $ 0.45  
Net investment income per share – diluted   $ 0.65     $ 0.58     $ 0.62     $ 0.64     $ 0.45  
Distributions declared per common share   $ 0.78     $ 1.00     $ 1.06     $ 0.94     $ 0.69  
Taxable Distributable Income per basic share   $ 0.63     $ 0.78     $ 0.70     $ 0.77     $ 0.65  

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  Year Ended
December 31,
2015
  Year Ended
December 31,
2014
  Year Ended
December 31,
2013
  Year Ended
December 31,
2012
  Year Ended
December 31,
2011
Balance Sheet Data:
                             
Investment assets at fair value   $ 409,570,495     $ 479,706,494     $ 440,549,994     $ 312,044,763     $ 239,791,681  
Total assets   $ 425,242,341     $ 510,446,797     $ 459,172,388     $ 319,260,473     $ 248,133,661  
Total debt outstanding   $ 205,141,405     $ 223,884,593     $ 192,592,373     $ 101,400,000     $ 60,000,000  
Stockholders’ equity   $ 216,100,470     $ 255,316,701     $ 250,369,693     $ 207,875,659     $ 180,525,942  
Net asset value per common share   $ 5.82     $ 6.94     $ 7.51     $ 7.85     $ 7.85  
Common shares outstanding at end of year     37,100,005       36,775,127       33,332,123       26,470,408       22,992,211  
Other Data:
                             
Investments funded(1)     130,954,741       235,905,130       243,966,586       123,165,150       85,541,809  
Principal collections related to investment repayments or sales(1)     129,793,338       193,554,964       94,197,886       104,556,500       81,681,314  
Number of portfolio investments at year
end(1)
    130       141       126       88       68  
Weighted average yield of income producing debt investments(2)     7.4 %      7.3 %      7.3 %      7.5 %      8.4 % 

(1) Does not include investments in time deposits or money markets.
(2) Weighted average yield of income producing investments is calculated as the average yield to par outstanding balances for investments in loans, bonds, and mezzanine debt in our Debt Securities portfolio.

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion should be read in conjunction with our financial statements and related notes and other financial information appearing elsewhere in this annual report. In addition to historical information, the following discussion and other parts of this annual report contain forward-looking information that involves risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated by such forward-looking information due to the factors discussed under “Item 1A. Risk Factors” and “Note About Forward-Looking Statements” appearing elsewhere in this annual report.

GENERAL

We are an internally managed, non-diversified closed-end investment company that is regulated as a Business Development Company, or BDC under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the “1940 Act”). We have three principal areas of investments:

First, the Company originates, structures, and invests in senior secured term loans and mezzanine debt primarily in privately-held middle market companies (the “Debt Securities Portfolio”). In addition, from time to time the Company may invest in the equity securities of privately held middle market companies.

Second, the Company have invested in asset management companies (Katonah Debt Advisors and Trimaran Advisors, collectively the “Asset Manager Affiliates”) that manage CLO Funds.

Third, the Company invests in debt and subordinated securities issued by collateralized loan obligation funds CLOs (“CLO Fund Securities”). These CLO Fund Securities are primarily managed by our Asset Manager Affiliates, but from time-to-time the Company makes investments in CLO Fund Securities managed by other asset managers. The CLO Funds typically invest in broadly syndicated loans, high-yield bonds and other credit instruments

The Company may also invest in other investments such as loans to larger, publicly-traded companies, high-yield bonds and distressed debt securities. The Company may also receive warrants or options to purchase common stock in connection with its debt investments.

In our Debt Securities Portfolio, our investment objective is to generate current income and, to a lesser extent, capital appreciation from the investments made by our middle market business in senior secured term loans, mezzanine debt and selected equity investments in privately-held middle market companies. We define the middle market as comprising of companies with earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (“EBITDA”) of $10 million to $50 million and/or total debt of $25 million to $150 million. We primarily invest in first and second lien term loans which, because of their priority in a company’s capital structure, we expect will have lower default rates and higher rates of recovery of principal if there is a default and which we expect will create a stable stream of interest income. The investments in our Debt Securities Portfolio are all or predominantly below investment grade, and have speculative characteristics with respect to the issuer’s capacity to pay interest and repay principal. While our primary investment focus is on making loans to, and selected equity investments in, privately-held middle market companies, we may also invest in other investments such as loans to smaller companies or larger, publicly-traded companies, high-yield bonds and distressed debt securities. We may also receive warrants or options to purchase common stock in connection with our debt investments.

From our Asset Manager Affiliates investment, we expect to receive recurring cash distributions and to generate capital appreciation through the addition of new CLO Funds managed by our Asset Manager Affiliates. The Asset Manager Affiliates manage CLO Funds that invest in broadly syndicated loans, high-yield bonds and other credit instruments. Collectively, the Asset Manager Affiliates have approximately $2.7 billion of par value assets under management as of December 31, 2015. The Asset Manager Affiliates are registered under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, and are each managed independently from KCAP by a separate management team (however, certain of the Company’s executive officers also act in similar capacities for one or both of the Asset Manager Affiliates).

In addition, our investments in CLO Fund Securities, which are primarily made up of a minority investment in the subordinated securities or preferred stock of CLO Funds raised and managed by our Asset

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Manager Affiliates, are anticipated to provide the Company with recurring cash distributions and complement the growth of our Asset Manager Affiliates.

Subject to market conditions, we intend to grow our entire portfolio of investments by raising additional capital, including through the prudent use of leverage available to us. As a BDC, we are limited in the amount of leverage we can incur under the 1940 Act. We are only allowed to borrow amounts such that our asset coverage, as defined in the 1940 Act, equals at least 200% after such borrowing.

We have elected to be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a RIC and intend to operate in a manner to maintain our RIC status. As a RIC, we intend to distribute to our stockholders substantially all of our net ordinary taxable income and the excess of realized net short-term capital gains over realized net long-term capital losses, if any, for each year. To qualify as a RIC, we must, among other things, meet certain source-of-income and asset diversification requirements. Pursuant to this election, we generally will not have to pay corporate-level U.S. federal income taxes on any income that we timely distribute to our stockholders.

PORTFOLIO AND INVESTMENT ACTIVITY

Our primary investments are: (1) lending to and investing in middle-market businesses through investments in senior secured loans, junior secured loans, subordinated/mezzanine debt investments, and other equity investments, which may include warrants, (2) our investments in our Asset Manager Affiliates, which manage portfolios of broadly syndicated loans, high-yield bonds and other credit instruments, and (3) CLO Fund Securities.

Total portfolio investment activity (excluding activity in time deposit and money market investments) for the years ended December 31, 2015, December 31, 2014, and December 31, 2013 was as follows:

         
  Debt
Securities
  CLO Fund
Securities
  Equity
Securities
  Asset
Manager
Affiliates
  Total
Portfolio
Fair Value at December 31, 2012   $ 111,037,882       83,257,507       8,020,716       77,242,000       279,558,105  
2013 Activity:
                                            
Purchases/originations/draws     232,226,295       11,957,500       3,813,838       217,212       248,214,845  
Pay-downs/pay-offs/sales     (80,089,537 )            (2,882,106 )      (7,014,955 )      (89,986,598 ) 
Net accretion (amortization)     238,554       (2,473,528 )                  (2,234,974 ) 
Net realized losses     (11,538,868 )            (551,636 )            (12,090,504 ) 
Net increase (decrease) in fair
value
    14,956,101       (13,289,259 )      2,605,586       5,703,743       9,976,171  
Fair Value at December 31, 2013     266,830,427       79,452,220       11,006,398       76,148,000       433,437,045  
2014 Activity:
                                            
Purchases/originations/draws     224,513,503       22,421,847       2,216,847       545,979       249,698,176  
Pay-downs/pay-offs/sales     (168,429,374 )      (10,132,500 )      (5,007,311 )      (6,432,086 )      (190,001,271 ) 
Net accretion (amortization)     410,718       (11,102,015 )                  (10,691,297 ) 
Net realized gains (losses)     (8,823,507 )      5,575,498       (7,136,408 )            (10,384,417 ) 
Net increase (decrease) in fair
value
    5,641,403       (8,700,148 )      7,040,155       2,064,107       6,045,517  
Fair Value at December 31, 2014     320,143,170       77,514,902       8,119,681       72,326,000       478,103,753  
2015 Activity:
                                            
Purchases/originations/draws     108,670,472       11,952,000       1,953,299             124,023,641  
Pay-downs/pay-offs/sales     (135,328,386 )      (3,872,700 )      (317,340 )      (3,701,446 )      (143,219,872 ) 
Net accretion (amortization)     1,860,670       (9,507,050 )                  (9,094,250 ) 
Net realized gains (losses)     41,580       (6,246,883 )      3,015             (6,202,288 ) 
Net increase (decrease) in fair
value
    (10,748,262 )      (13,967,887 )      (210,167 )      (11,243,554 )      (36,169,870 ) 
Fair Value at December 31, 2015   $ 284,639,244     $ 55,872,382     $ 9,548,488     $ 57,381,000     $ 407,441,114  

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The level of investment activity for investments funded and principal repayments for our investments can vary substantially from period to period depending on the number and size of investments that we invest in or divest of, and many other factors, including the amount and competition for the debt and equity securities available to middle market companies, the level of merger and acquisition activity for such companies and the general economic environment.

The following table shows the Company’s portfolio by security type at December 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014:

           
  December 31, 2015   December 31, 2014
Security Type   Amortized Cost   Fair Value   %(1)   Amortized Cost   Fair Value   %(1)
Money Market Accounts(3)   $ 2,129,381     $ 2,129,381       1     $ 1,602,741     $ 1,602,741       % 
Senior Secured Loan     203,819,074       194,123,223       46       220,965,922       218,329,859       46  
Junior Secured Loan     40,221,557       37,591,900       9       38,664,199       38,569,006       8  
Senior Unsecured Loan     23,000,000       23,000,000       6       33,066,984       33,066,984       7  
First Lien Bond     3,000,000       2,216,700       1       2,962,507       2,580,000       1  
Senior Subordinated Bond     4,466,793       4,615,569       1       4,295,544       4,240,301       1  
Senior Unsecured Bond     11,879,187       10,551,724       3       11,208,178       11,386,218       2  
Senior Secured Bond     1,510,560       1,503,755             1,515,584       1,552,500        
CLO Fund Securities     83,214,947       55,872,382       14       90,889,190       77,514,902       16  
Equity Securities     10,467,787       9,548,488       2       8,828,812       8,119,681       2  
Preferred Securities     10,411,673       11,036,373       3       10,206,016       10,418,302       2  
Asset Manager Affiliates(2)     56,591,230       57,381,000       14       60,292,677       72,326,000       15  
Total   $ 450,712,189     $ 409,570,495       100 %    $ 484,498,354     $ 479,706,494       100 % 

(1) Represents percentage of of total portfolio at fair value
(2) Represents the equity investment in the Asset Manager Affiliates.
(3) Includes restricted cash held under employee benefit plans.

Debt Securities Portfolio

At December 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014, our investments in income producing loans and debt securities, excluding CLO Fund Securities, had a weighted average interest rate of approximately 7.4% and 7.3%, respectively.

The investment portfolio (excluding the Company’s investment in Asset Manager Affiliates and CLO Funds) at December 31, 2015 was spread across 27 different industries and 101 different entities with an average balance per entity of approximately $3.3 million. As of December 31, 2015, all but one of our portfolio companies were current on their debt service obligations.

We may invest up to 30% of our investment portfolio in “Non-qualifying” opportunistic investments such as high-yield bonds, debt and equity securities of CLO Funds, foreign investments, and distressed debt or equity securities of public companies. At December 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014, the total amount of non-qualifying assets was approximately 18% and 21%, respectively. The majority of non-qualifying assets were foreign investments which was approximately 13.5% and 15.6% of the Company’s total assets, respectively (including the Company’s investments in CLO Funds, which are typically domiciled outside the U.S. and represented approximately 13% and 15% of its total assets on such dates, respectively). The investments in our Debt Securities Portfolio are all or predominantly below investment grade, and therefore have speculative characteristics with respect to the issuer’s capacity to pay interest and repay principal.

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The following tables detail the ten largest portfolio companies (at fair value) as of December 31, 2015:

     
  December 31, 2015
Investment   Cost   Fair Value   % of FMV
Asset Manager Affiliates   $ 56,591,230     $ 57,381,000       14 % 
Trimaran Advisors, L.L.C.     23,000,000       23,000,000       6  
Katonah 2007-I CLO Ltd.     24,312,424       20,295,677       5  
DBI Holding, LLC     8,585,578       12,975,447       3  
Crowley Holdings Preferred, LLC     10,411,673       11,036,373       3  
Grupo HIMA San Pablo, Inc.     9,817,315       9,917,500       2  
Catamaran CLO 2015-1 Ltd.     11,869,751       8,789,651       2  
Tank Partners Holdings, LLC     10,624,515       8,177,538       2  
Weiman Products, LLC     6,582,457       6,619,805       2  
Nielsen & Bainbrige, LLC     6,803,605       6,510,157       2  
Total   $ 168,598,548     $ 164,703,148       40 % 

     
  December 31, 2014
Investment   Cost   Fair Value   % of FMV
Asset Manager Affiliates   $ 60,292,677     $ 72,326,000       15 % 
Katonah 2007-I CLO Ltd.     23,471,779       25,191,782       5  
Trimaran Advisors, L.L.C.     23,000,000       23,000,000       5  
Tank Partners Holdings, LLC     11,378,111       10,539,567       2  
Crowley Holdings Preferred, LLC     10,206,016       10,418,302       2  
Restorix Health, Inc.     10,066,984       10,066,984       2  
Grupo HIMA San Pablo, Inc.     9,805,883       10,052,500       2  
Catamaran CLO 2014-1 Ltd.     10,473,628       8,867,176       2  
Catamaran CLO 2014-2 Ltd.     9,862,799       8,761,500       2  
DBI Holding LLC     7,776,255       8,373,483       2  
Total   $ 176,334,132     $ 187,597,293       39 % 

Excluding the Asset Manager Affiliates and CLO Fund securities, the Company’s ten largest portfolio companies represented approximately 19% and 17% of the total fair value of the Company’s investments at December 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014, respectively.

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The industry concentrations, based on the fair value of the Company’s investment portfolio as of December 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014, were as follows:

           
  December 31, 2015   December 31, 2014(2)
Industry Classification   Cost   Fair Value   %(1)   Cost   Fair Value   %(1)
Aerospace and Defense   $ 6,910,349     $ 6,383,724       2 %    $ 10,059,487     $ 9,533,092       2 % 
Asset Management
Company(2)
    56,591,230       57,381,000       14       60,292,677       72,326,000       15  
Related Party Loan     23,000,000       23,000,000       6       23,000,000       23,000,000       5  
Automotive     9,898,494       9,440,866       2       8,362,956       8,312,548       2  
Banking, Finance, Insurance & Real Estate     6,270,984       6,008,587       1       7,660,721       7,639,365       2  
Beverage, Food and Tobacco     17,334,746       16,882,750       4       17,974,974       17,883,421       4  
Capital Equipment     9,519,342       7,846,767       2       9,486,407       10,351,329       2  
Chemicals, Plastics and
Rubber
    3,494,086       3,359,916       1       6,348,226       6,210,253       1  
CLO Fund Securities     83,214,947       55,872,382       14       90,889,190       77,514,902       16  
Construction & Building     1,976,345       1,907,614                          
Consumer goods: Durable     13,983,607       12,753,455       3       13,876,482       13,301,207       3  
Consumer goods:
Non-durable
    20,124,355       19,646,576       5       13,535,975       13,314,952       3  
Containers, Packaging and Glass                       2,992,443       2,946,734       1  
Energy: Oil & Gas     14,281,821       10,204,318       2       13,866,208       13,289,753       3  
Energy: Electricity     3,465,576       3,465,000       1                    
Environmental Industries     13,735,492       13,179,657       3       12,942,593       12,911,017       3  
Forest Products & Paper     5,888,294       5,883,080       1       5,917,051       5,942,523       1  
Healthcare & Pharmaceuticals     58,649,512       55,417,827       14       66,186,412       65,720,782       13  
High Tech Industries     11,727,898       11,662,995       3       14,457,495       14,419,110       3  
Hotel, Gaming & Leisure     400,000       1,000             3,392,481       2,962,315       1  
Media: Advertising, Printing & Publishing     11,167,950       10,340,449       3       11,318,815       11,396,027       2  
Media: Broadcasting & Subscription     7,428,110       7,406,792       2       14,477,078       14,409,401       3  
Metals & Mining     228,563       991             228,563       1,000        
Retail     4,416,709       3,594,599       1       4,234,086       3,773,847       1  
Services: Business     18,206,668       21,022,801       5       16,550,255       16,066,421       3  
Services: Consumer     6,512,029       6,356,054       2       6,798,372       6,752,521       1  
Telecommunications     13,776,871       12,425,489       3       22,030,434       21,865,864       5  
Time Deposit and Money Market Accounts(3)     2,129,381       2,129,381       1       1,602,741       1,602,741        
Transportation: Cargo     18,232,953       18,865,603       5       20,156,700       20,455,941       4  
Transportation: Consumer     2,472,795       2,324,381       1                    
Utilities: Electric     5,673,082       4,806,441       1       5,859,532       5,803,428       1  
Total   $ 450,712,189     $ 409,570,495       100 %    $ 484,498,354     $ 479,706,494       100 % 

(1) Calculated as a percentage of total portfolio at fair value.
(2) Represents the equity investment in the Asset Manager Affiliates.
(3) Includes restricted cash held under employee benefit plans.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CLO Fund Securities

We typically make a minority investment in the subordinated securities or preferred stock of CLO Funds raised and managed by our Asset Manager Affiliates and may selectively invest in securities issued by CLO Funds managed by other asset management companies. As of December 31, 2015, we had approximately $56 million invested in CLO Fund Securities, issued primarily by funds managed by our Asset Manager Affiliates.

The CLO Funds invest primarily in broadly syndicated non-investment grade loans, high-yield bonds and other credit instruments of corporate issuers. The underlying assets in each of the CLO Fund Securities in which we have an investment are generally diversified secured or unsecured corporate debt.

Our CLO Fund Securities as of December 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014 are as follows:

           
      December 31, 2015   December 31, 2014
CLO Fund Securities   Investment   %(1)   Cost   Fair Value   Cost   Fair Value
Grant Grove CLO, Ltd.     Subordinated Securities       22.2 %    $ 2,484,943     $ 280,164     $ 2,254,638     $ 469,132  
Katonah III, Ltd.(3)     Preferred Shares       23.1       1,373,132       400,000       1,015,334       400,000  
Katonah VII CLO Ltd.(2)     Subordinated Securities       16.4                   3,563,252       1,000  
Katonah VIII CLO Ltd.(2)     Subordinated Securities       10.3                   2,755,267       100,000  
Katonah IX CLO Ltd.(2)     Preferred Shares       6.9       1,140,057       105,000       1,262,496       594,988  
Katonah X CLO Ltd.(2)     Subordinated Securities       33.3       7,637,499       1,000,000       8,910,471       4,863,001